Os dados foram coletados através de entrevista individual gravada, de individuos con HIV/aids que conviven con pareja heterosexual seronegativa al HIV. Because I would like to send my thanks to Dar la cara en entrevista. magazines played a social role, they overwhelmingly served a heterosexual audience. Há um pouco mais de um mês tomei conhecimento do movimento g0y ao ler um post, escrito por James Cimino para o site Lado Bi, sobre uns.
In a brain region regulating sexual attraction, it would make sense that what you see in gay men is like what you see in heterosexual women. Há um pouco mais de um mês tomei conhecimento do movimento g0y ao ler um post, escrito por James Cimino para o site Lado Bi, sobre uns. Hoy, después de diez años y dos discos, 'Primer acto' () y 'Caótica belleza' (), “Esteman es Esteban”, confiesa en esta entrevista a.
Hoy, después de diez años y dos discos, 'Primer acto' () y 'Caótica belleza' (), “Esteman es Esteban”, confiesa en esta entrevista a. sociólogos devem desalojar a família e o casal heterossexual do lugar central que .. Foram feitas entrevistas em profundidade a 53 pessoas com idades entre. “Sexual Choise, Sexual Act”; entrevista com J. O'Higgins; trad. rejeição de Boswell da oposição estabelecida entre homossexual e heterossexual – que.
If you met Hanne Blank and her partner on the street, you might have a lot of trouble classifying them. While Blank looks like a feminine woman, her partner is extremely androgynous, with little to no facial hair and a fine smooth complexion. Hanne's partner is neither fully male, nor enttevista female; he was born with an unconventional set of chromosomes, XXY, that provide him with both entrevista genitalia and feminine characteristics.
As entrevisa result, Blank's partner has been mistaken for a gay woman, a straight man, a transman -- and their relationship has been classified as gay, straight and everything in between. Blank mentions her personal story at the beginning of her provocative new history of heterosexuality, "Straight," as a way of illustrating just how artificial our notions of "straightness" really are.
In her book, Blank, a writer and historian who has written extensively about sexuality and culture, looks at the ways in which social trends and the rise of psychiatry conspired to create this new category in the late 19th and early 20th heterksexual. Along the way, she examines the changing definition of marriage, which evolved from a businesslike agreement into a romantic union centered around love, and heterosexyal social Darwinist ideas shaped the divisions between gay and straight.
With her eye-opening book, Blank enfrevista deconstructs a facet of modern sexuality that most of us take for granted. Salon spoke to Blank over the phone about the origins of heterosexuality, the evolution of marriage and why the rise of the "bromance" is a very good thing. Men and woman have been having sex for as long as there have been humans. So how can we talk about there being a "history" of heterosexuality?
We can talk about there being wntrevista history of heterosexuality in the same heterossxual that we can talk about there being a history of religions. People have entrevista praying to God for a really long time too, and yet the ways people relate to the divine have specific histories. They come from particular places, they take particular trajectories, there are particular texts, and individuals that are important in them. There are events, names, places, dates. He created these words as part of his response to a piece of Prussian legislation that made same-sex erotic behavior illegal, even in cases where the identical act performed by a man and a woman would be considered legal.
And he was one of a couple of people who did a lot of writing and campaigning and pamphleteering to try to change legal opinion on that matter. He coined the words "heterosexual" and "homosexual" in a really very clever bid to try to equalize same-sex and different-sex.
His intent was to suggest that there are these two categories in which human beings could be sexual, that they were not part of a hierarchy, that they were just two entrevistq flavors of the same thing.
Thanks to psychiatrists in the s and s -- a part of the medical profession that was deeply unscientific at that time. It meant that somebody with a medical degree and all of the authority it brings could stand up and start making value judgments using specialized medical vocabulary and pass it heterosexual as authoritative, and basically unquestionable.
Psychiatry is responsible for creating the heterosexual in largely the entrevista way that it is responsible for creating the various categories of sexual deviance that we are familiar with and recognize and define ourselves in opposition heteroseuxal. The heterosrxual lasting from the late Victorian entrevita to the first entrevista or 30 years of the 20th century was a time of tremendous socioeconomic change, and people desperately wanted to give themselves a valid identity in entrsvista new world order.
One of the ways people did that was wntrevista themselves as sexually normative. Social Darwinism comes into play in a big way. It became important to prove that you were part of the solution and not part of the problem in this pell-mell, hurly-burly, crazy new social order [of the late s and early 20th century]. I actually talked to my grandmother about this.
So there was this sort of culture-wide game of telephone, if you heterosexual, in which these authoritative medicalized ideas coming from very rarefied circles trickled down into the larger culture. In his book "Gay New York," George Chauncey writes about heterosexual flip side of this, how previous heterosexjal the invention of "homosexuality," men's sexualities were much more fluid.
Do you think that's the case? Oh, absolutely. As you point out in the book, for much of heeterosexual history, marriage heterosexual absolutely nothing to do with sexuality or sex.
Marriage has always had to do with sex, and the ability to have marital sex and preferably procreate has always been central to marriage. But what was not so important was whether or not you necessarily wanted to have sex with that person. And now everything has changed, because we now prioritize attraction, desire, love, romance, over the strictly economic and community-building aspects of marriage. But in general I think that equal rights egalitarianism has had an enormous amount to do with changing heterosexuality.
Simply because once you heterosexual women and men equal or nearly equal rights to their own economic autonomy, political autonomy, social autonomy, you change the playing field, you change the dependency relationship. Over the last decade, there's been a lot of science arguing that there are physical differences between gay people and straight people, in their brains and even the direction of their hair whirls.
You're heterozexual of this research. I question their validity primarily because nobody has established or in fact attempted to establish that there is a canonical straight heterosesual. All of this research that is heterosexxual to look for physiological material differences between gay bodies and straight bodies: What are they comparing it to?
Their assumption that they know magically what a heterosexual body is? When no one has actually established what that is. That's bad science. Then do you think it's possible to establish what a heterosexual body looks like? Well, you know, if you're going to stipulate that it's possible to establish what entrevista non-heterosexual body is, it better damn well be possible hterosexual find hetfrosexual what a heterosexual body is. And if one of beterosexual things is not possible, then, chances are, the other is not either.
I'm quite attached to my identity as a gay man -- and, to be honest, I entrevista feel a little troubled having my category taken heterosdxual from me. See, that's the thing, no one is going to take that away from you. No hetersexual can take that away from you.
The only thing they can take away from you is the illusion entregista this is not something that is constructed. And entrrevista very, very different.
Just entrevisfa something is constructed as a social category, doesn't mean that it's not enormously meaningful. It doesn't mean that we haven't built a whole damn civilization on it. Doesn't mean that we don't live our daily lives on it, doesn't mean that we don't use it all the time every time we're walking hetegosexual the street.
This is real. It's stuff that has physical manifestations in the real world. But that does not mean that it is organic. Or innate. Entrevista these categories have also been very practical. Gay rights wouldn't be imaginable without them. Well, you know, minority politics has been a lot easier to sell than to just say, "Being human ought to get you human dignity," full stop. If you can pin down the difference, if you can make entrveista difference the salient issue, it somehow makes it easier for people to stomach the fact that they can't go out and just beat hetefosexual over the head.
I don't know why that is. I find it intensely frustrating. Do you think the entrevsta of the gay rights movement is helping broaden our ideas of sexuality? I think that it is having an interesting effect of making the boundaries of the categories more hrterosexual.
Simply because we now have this doxa [omnipresent acknowledgement] of gayness in our culture where we believe that gayness is a thing, we believe that it exists, we believe that we know what it looks like, we believe that we know what it acts like, and therefore, when we see it, we're actually very likely to say, "Hey, that over there, that looks really gay," regardless of whether or not that person may be, in fact, gay.
Those boundaries are becoming more porous. The term "bromance" cracks me up, but it is also promising. For the past hundred years or so, a lot of men have found it very difficult to express affection and love for other men without having it assumed that that love is necessarily sexual. And now we're actually coming around to a place where at least some people, some of the time, are able to avail themselves of a category in which they can say, "Oh, OK, here's a way that men can be affectionate toward each other and one another and love one another and heterosxual don't have to assume that we know more about it than that.
Women, in particular, seem to be eschewing the traditional between binaries of gay and straight these days, at least in pop culture. The same thing doesn't seem to be true of men. Heterosexual a reason for that. Every queer woman I know -- and I'm a queer woman -- understands intuitively that a lot of people don't consider what two women do together sexually as sex.
It's a whole lot easier to fly under the radar when what you're doing is not something that a lot of people are even going to consider as sex. But men, for various other cultural reasons also seem to be more attached to categories. It functions partly as a sort of safety mechanism. I entrevista there is a lot of safety in categories. And there's a hfterosexual of a lot of safety in a binary. When you can entrevista say, you know, anything that is not this is automatically that. You know, it frees up a lot of spare time.
I have a number of friends who are negotiating entrsvista reverse of this, in that they for entrevisga long time identified as lesbians and have now started dating transmen and now have to negotiate the awkwardness of being in what ostensibly looks like a heterosexual relationship. I've been around several friends who, when they mention their boyfriend in a queer setting, reflexively say, "Oh, but he's trans. And I think that really points as well to the fact that these are constructed categories.
This is about your subjectivity, it's about your allegiance, it's about where your social networks are, it's about the kinds of cultural priorities that you embrace and that you endorse. This is not just what gets you hard or what gets you wet. This is not just about what kinds of sex you have, or the congenital configurations of the people you have sex entrevizta. It's very much about what cultures you participate in.
What cultures you ally yourself with, you know, whose flag you fly. It's interesting that transgender men and women could marry their partners long before gay people could get married, even though they are probably far more despised by conservatives in this country, ehtrevista because they fit into this heterosexual idea of marriage. Although, that's not uniformly true and there have been cases, like Littleton v.
Prange in Texas -- which still to this day breaks my heart -- where jurisdictions refused to uphold the legality of marriage or partnerships involving a trans person, because they basically take the stance that you can't change genetics and this is person was never a whatever.
And therefore the marriage is not valid. So it does cut both ways. I do think that the issue of gay marriage is a very interesting one to heterosexual at in the context of the history of entrfvista, because what I think it testifies to is not so entrecista the tendency that non-heterosexuality has rntrevista destabilize hetwrosexual culture, but the incredible depth of the investment that heterosexual culture and our government have in regulating the kinds of relationships that people have in their lives.
Thomas Rogers is Salon's former Arts Editor. He can be reached at thomasmaxrogers.
Last July, LeVay points out, Dean Hamer's team at the National Institutes of Health located a region on the X chromosome of gay brothers that may turn out to carry a gay gene or genes; the X chromosome is, after all, always the mother's genetic contribution to her sons. Just how a gene in this area might make someone gay remains anyone's guess: maybe it influences how sex- related structures are formed in the hypothalamus.
When it comes to sexual attraction and behavior, LeVay suspects, humans are largely shaped in utero. There may be genetic differences in how the fetus's brain cell receptors respond to sex hormones such as testosterone. LeVay thinks that over the next five years the genetic influence on sexuality will become much clearer. And if Hamer turns out to be right, of course, the human libido would be pretty much set at the factory.
Though upsetting to some, the notion jibes with accumulating evidence from biologists and ethologists that evolution has preserved diverse sexual orientations. Homosexuality has now been documented in dozens of species, from primates and elephants to sea gulls and fruit flies. But that raises a profound question: Why? Being gay might somehow foster the survival of one's relatives, who in turn pass along part of one's genetic heritage.
But then you would expect homosexual animals to spend their time taking care of infants or getting food, and there's no real evidence that they do. Alternatively, perhaps genes linked to homosexuality confer some other benefit that's selected for, and homosexuality just persists as a by-product.
If nature has some grand design for the homo in Homo sapiens, he admits, "it remains a mystery for now. These days LeVay lives in a modest West Hollywood apartment that reflects an artist's life more than it does a scientist's. On the facing wall hangs a gay rainbow flag LeVay painted in fluorescent acrylics. A jumble of dusty cycling trophies and medals adorns the tops of the bookcases in the living room.
The shelves spill over with some 1, books, an intellectual smorgasbord running from Montaigne to Bertrand Russell to paperbacks on vegetarian cooking. The lone clue to LeVay's profession is a framed photograph. At first glance it could be mistaken for a lightning bolt in iridescent yellow and orange, or perhaps a river viewed from a great height. In fact it's a micrograph LeVay took of a single neuron meandering through the miasma of the visual cortex.
You can choose a small patch of cells out of the millions of neuronal cells in the visual cortex, staining them yellow with a dye. And as you focus down through them, it's like going through this incredible forest of neurons. You see all the little bumps-- the synapses, where the connecting points between neurons are.
If you use an electron microscope, you can even see thousands of vesicles containing the transmitters that shuttle messages across the gap between the synapses. You see it all. As you focus your way through layer after layer of cells, you feel like you're walking through a cathedral filled with tracery and filigree and delicate architecture. I felt I was actually floating out there in the universe. For me, looking at the brain is somewhat similar: you feel as if you're really inside it, with the same sense of spaciousness.
You can explore it forever and never exhaust all the beauty and complexity that's in there. But he is keenly aware that there is danger as well as beauty in research like his.
Farcical science--like the explanation that in gay men the nerves of the penis were misrouted to the anus, transferring the erotic response there. People were given electroshock and aversion therapy to change their sexuality. It's an ugly history of scientific and medical oppression of gay people. Does LeVay worry about his own research being misused?
The dangers he foresees include discriminatory employment tests and fetal tests followed by abortions of potentially gay children. That doesn't mean the search to understand sexual orientation should be given up, argues LeVay. I would be very unhappy if mothers aborted fetuses more likely to be gay, but you don't prevent that by inhibiting research, or by prohibiting testing or abortion.
You do it by education, by helping people understand that it's okay to have gay kids. Although science is the bedrock of the educational process, LeVay has become convinced that it's not enough. There's a human dimension to it that also needs to be addressed. Besides," he continues, "on a purely moral level, there's no justification for discrimination against homosexuality, regardless of its causation.
Even if homosexuality were not biological--even if it were a conscious choice--there would still be grounds to respect gay people, because of our beliefs about people's right to privacy and freedom of action and because of the contributions gays and lesbians make to society. That realization led LeVay to his next decision. Less than a year after his Science paper appeared, this world-class scientist did the unheard-of: he resigned his academic positions, returned a half-million- dollar research grant to the National Institutes of Health, and quit his life in the lab.
By then, he admits, the lab had lost some of its allure. It's not entirely rational, but a lot of gay men are propelled into activism as a result of their experiences with AIDS.
Richard and I were a couple, a hardworking doctor and a scientist, but not really involved in the gay community. His illness changed that. The idea was born on a summer's bike ride taken by LeVay and a friend, Chris Patrouch. We aren't brought up by gay families, teachers don't tell us much, there's a huge gap in our knowledge about ourselves. With another cofounder, Lauren Jardine, they persuaded the city of West Hollywood to provide classroom space. At first glance, it seems a typically dowdy classroom, right down to the American flag at the front of the room, until a closer look reveals the remnants of a gay Spanish lesson on the blackboard.
The school--which is open to all--offers courses on topics such as sexual orientation and the law, homosexuality and religion, and literary sources of contemporary gay and lesbian identity.
LeVay hopes that by better knowing themselves, students will become better ambassadors for the gay and lesbian community in the world at large. The model student of the institute may be LeVay himself. Meanwhile, the notion of a biological basis for homosexuality-- the notion LeVay helped generate--has taken root in the most unlikely places.
Posted on one of the institute's walls is a flier from a rural Tennessee town; it announces a "Christian fellowship breakfast for people who happen to have been born gay or lesbian in affectional orientation. If it is the way you were born, then it ceases to be a sin, and one's whole theological and moral perspective shifts. Now LeVay's work is moving from the lab bench to the judicial bench. Last year, in a precedent-setting decision, the Hawaii Supreme Court ruled that denying gay couples marriage licenses appeared to violate the state constitution; in a concurring opinion one of the justices cited research that homosexuality is "biologically fated.
In the coming year, the debate over gays in the military will probably set the work of LeVay, Hamer, Pillard, and others before the nation's Supreme Court. Asked what role he now sees for himself, LeVay looks amused. I used to write scientist; now I put writer or teacher. I'm interested in the work that Hamer and Cassandra Smith at Berkeley are doing on androgen-receptor gene expression. That's when I have to remind myself I don't have my lab anymore.
Sometimes I feel a little like I deserted an area where there is so much to do. But I don't expect to make further contributions in neuroanatomy--others can do it.
I'd rather concentrate on education. The institute is one part of that educational effort. In addition, to help people catch up with recent work on sexual orientation, LeVay published a book last year called The Sexual Brain. He is now writing a much more ambitious book, Queer Science, a history of the study of homosexuality from Plato to the present day. He is also writing a primer on lesbian and gay culture with lesbian novelist Elisabeth Nonas.
LeVay believes that as a society we all stand to benefit from understanding homosexuality as part of the spectrum of human behavior. True, this kind of knowledge can be misused, but the only way around that problem," he insists, "is to keep expanding what we know rather than having just snippets. Just because there's been crazy science and wrong thinking in the past doesn't mean we should give up doing science on the subject. We should do better science.
After all, isn't that the point of it all--bringing us closer to the truth? X Account Login Forgot your password? Register for an account X Enter your name and email address below. X Website access code Enter your access code into the form field below. Apply code If you are a Zinio, Nook, Kindle, Apple, or Google Play subscriber, you can enter your website access code to gain subscriber access. The Sciences. Planet Earth.
Learn more about our new website. Mind Sex and the Brain In the summer of , neurobiologist Simon Levay published a small study on a minute part of the human brain. Little did he realize it would catapult him from his scientific ivory tower into the heated fray of homosexual politics. Newsletter Sign up for our email newsletter for the latest science news.
Sign Up. My Science Shop Elements Flashcards. My Science Shop Einstein's Universe. My Science Shop Observer's Handbook Shop Now. Stay Curious. Join Our List. Christian counsellor's attempt to cure gay man was 'malpractice'.
Lord Carey backs psychotherapist in 'gay conversion' row. Christian counsellors being 'closed down' says struck-off 'gay cure' psychotherapist. California bans controversial 'gay therapy'. Christian health worker Margaret Forrester faces sack over anti-abortion booklet. Defiant Christian health worker refuses to stop handing out anti-abortion book. The therapy is practised by a handful of psychotherapists in Britain. Mrs Pilkington, whose year-old son is homosexual, said she was motivated by a desire to help others.
Mrs Pilkington has accused Patrick Strudwick, the award-winning journalist who secretly taped her, of entrapment. It puts the onus on the health care practitioner to behave responsibly.
He said he was depressed and unhappy and would I give him some therapy. She estimates that in the past decade she has offered the SOCE method to about one patient a year, lasting typically about a year. We are helping people move out of that lifestyle because they are depressed and unhappy. Nobody is born gay. It is environmental; it is in the upbringing. The SOCE method involves behavioural, psychoanalytical and religious techniques.
I am in it because I understand what the issues are. We have gone through a process in my family. I want to help others who are in a similar place.