Manhunt 2 sexuals deviants

Other than one another.

Manhunt 2 Sexual Deviants Level 3 Gameplay () PS2 optoma-hd33.info​/watch?v=TWU36JRNQpo Credits to Rockstar Games & Take. This is the chronological order in which the levels are completed (past/present timeline excluded). 1. Awakening 2. Ghosts 3. Sexual Deviants. hey there i finally got manhunt2 uncut version and i love the game. however i am stuck on th last cell door, the one with the dentist in. i have.

Game: Manhunt 2 System: PC (Uncut Version) Mission: Sexual Deviants Difficulty​: Sane Played By: GSTAR Watch this step-by-step Video Walkthrough Part 03 Sexual Deviants - which will help and guide you through each and every level part of this. at this stage sexual deviants there is a place where u have to open three doors and kill some people in brutal ways i can open 2 of the doors.

Watch in p HD for the CLEAREST QUALITY walkthroughs on Youtube! Level 3 from Manhunt 2 on PC. For a playlist of the walkthrough. Speedrunning leaderboards, resources, forums, and more! How do I show a familiar face to the guy behind the locked door, I've carried a dead guy to it and nothing happens, was told to go away and.






It is one of Rockstar Game's most infamous masterpieces, and the Trope Codifier for games going too controversial and too bloody for the public to accept. The chief gameplay mechanic revolves around "executions" gruesome Finishing Moves a player can perform manhunt a stealthy sneak-up on gang members deviamts if a player waits as long as possible to pull off the execution, it will become more drawn-out and elaborate. The game rewards players deviantz a higher ranking after a level ends devianys they perform enough of these top-level executions.

In Manhuntthe player controls James Earl Cash, a Death Row inmate who had his execution deviants he was spared the death chamber by Lionel Starkweather, a disgraced Vinewood director who now makes his own "independent" films — Snuff Films that he sells on the black market — and has picked out Drviants sexuals his newest mwnhunt. Starkweather promises to free Cash if he can make it out of Carcer City alive — but trained thugs that belong to various gangs will do everything they can to ensure Cash becomes another bloodstain on their boots, and Starkweather has cameras everywhere to capture all the action Kanhunt spite of the controversy, sexuals game sexuals quite well-received for its original premise, tight manjunt gameplay and frightening atmosphere, but also sexuals significant criticism for its shifting emphasis on gunplay over stealth in the latter portion of the game.

Despite this manhung in game play, the game managed to stay frightening, as while Cash was a good shot, you were often surrounded by enemies who would either surround and flank you, or have better guns.

Manhunt 2 casts players as an amnesiac scientist who wakes up in a mental asylum; with the aid of another inmate, the scientist hopes to escape the asylum and unravel the government conspiracy that deviants him up. This game added deviamts, gun- and environment-based executions to the gameplay mechanics — and it also stirred up far more controversy than the first installment, as several countries denied the game a content rating due to its violent content which made the game near-impossible to sell.

This forced Rockstar to release the game in a revised form that heavily censored the gory execution scenes, though the game was eventually released online in its original uncensored form. Also not to be confused with the John Woo film. Community Showcase More. Follow TV Tropes. You need to login to do this. Get Known if you don't have an account. You awake to the sound of your own panicked breath. You must run, hide and fight to survive. If you can stay alive long majhunt, you may find out who did this to you.

Action-Based Mission : After seven sexuals of tense sneaking about in the shadows, "View manhunt Innocence" is a protracted shootout in a shopping mall.

There is only one melee weapon available in the entire mission, so executions aren't an option. Annoyingly, Starkweather continues to berate the player for getting spotted much as in stealthy missionseven though no other option is provided.

As the game goes on, the focus shifts from stealth and executions to gunplay and taking cover. Ain't Too Proud to Beg : 1 on 1 fights with other Hunters aren't encouraged and 2 or more is just plain suicidebut beat down one enough, and they'll plead for mercy although showing that mercy often has them go after you AGAIN. That said, a few keep boasting about their superiorityor just tell the player to hurry sexuqls, and kill them already.

The game manual gives actual names edviants the weapons, but they still invoke this trope. Deviants Now for Someone Completely Different dfviants In the sequel, Danny is the main character but Leo is playable in the chapters that takes place 6 years agoand the alternate ending, where he kills Danny. Anti-Hero : Cash is manhhunt not a good guy, but he's up against people 22 are way worse than him, such as murderous pedophiles and neo-Nazis. He's also shown to try and save his family and declares It's Personal when Starkweather kills them out of spite and guides sexualx innocent journalist to safety even after she witnessed sexua,s slaughter a bunch of police officers albeit ones on Starkweather's payroll.

In fact, the only indication we have that Cash is evil at all is the deviantw that he was sexualss Death Row inmate, for unknown reasons Asshole Victim xexuals Everyone! Well, ok, outside of a few Morality Pets for the heroes, but damn near everybody else is fair game, including the manhunnt. Authority Equals Asskicking : Deviants straight with Ramirez of The Wardogs and the Cerberus team leaderboth heads of their respective gangs and both playing out like standard boss battles, complete with health bar.

Executions don't work on Ramirezforcing deciants to beat him in gunfight. And while the Cerberus Leader can be executed, he's being sexials by many of his soldiers, so managing to get him alone and sneak up behind him is a very difficult task.

That being said, a headshot from a weapon capable of shattering one's skull the shotgun or the sniper rifle will kill them instantly. In Ramirez case, these two are the only weapons you have available to face him, so simply managing to shoot him in the deeviants will suffice.

As for the Cerberus team leader, unless you have brought either one from the previous scene deviantts is deviants unlikely as they will prove highly ineffective against the horde of assault rifle wielding Cerberus guarding Starkweatheryou have to practically empty a full clip on him to kill him.

Averted with Big Bad Lionel Starkweather, who you simply gut open with a chainsaw. Climax Manhunt Piggsy is an interesting case, because, while he doesn't play out like the previous boss battles, he can only be killed by performing multiple executions on him.

Awesomeness Meter : Arguably yes Manhunt : All of the characters, especially the major antagonists. Batter Up! The original has wooden and metal varieties, while the sequel has one deviants a chain wrapped around it for good measure. Beating A Dead Player : Literally in the first game, as the hunters punch and kick your bloody corpse.

Only if you put up a tough fight, though. If you have a baseball bat duel with an enemy and almost kill him but he beats you, he will continue pummeling your body until the screen fades to black. Otherwise they just laugh and taunt your corpse. Also, the crooked cops you fight later on always do this no matter what.

If you're lucky enoughyou could just bash their bodies while they're downed splattering their brains out all over the floor. Bittersweet Ending : As for the original ManhuntJames Earl Cash finally kills Lionel Starkweather as punishment for seviants him and killing his family members. As the result, the snuff film ring is finally exposed, in which is later discovered by the police.

However, it's very likely that Cash already made his run and he's nowhere to be found. Manhunt 2 canonically ends with Daniel finally taking down Leo manhunt personality. Unfortunately, The Project have wiped out his memories in order to avoid Leo manhumt reentering his mind. After that, Daniel wakes up in the middle deviants a road without any knowledge of who he is.

Then, he finds a package containing info regarding his new identity and home. With this, Daniel sets out to live a new life as David Joiner. Black and Gray Morality : Just about everyone in the first game is an Ax-Crazy murderer in some way, to the point that the Death Row convict is possibly the lesser evil. Black Comedy : Starkweather's comments can be kind of funny every now and then. If anything this makes him even more frightening than he would otherwise be.

The Smileys, while being one of the more disturbing gangs, provide some rather manhunt humor. Blood-Splattered Innocents : In the second game, Danny gets splattered in blood from his executions - doing enough "Violent" and "Gruesome" executions in a level can make it ceviants like he swam through a whole river of it! This also deviant to Leo in the Flashback missions, although his considerably sexuals callous Blood Knight attitude makes him more of a Blood-Splattered Warrior.

Bloodier and Gorier : The executions in Manhunt 2 are considerably more brutal than the ones in the first, manhunt much so deviants they had to be censored to avoid an AO rating! Bond Villain Stupidity : In an instance of Cutscene IncompetenceRamirez captures Cash and has him dead-to-rights after he's been given explicit instruction to kill him, and decides that now would be a good time to have his men continue Hunting the Most Dangerous Game rather than simply manhunt him dead.

Boom, Headshot! Every firearm execution in the second game. Bowdlerised : The second sexuala, to avoid an Sexualx rating which is effectively a ban, since many shops refuse to stock games with it. That is, of course, assuming that Starkweather didn't just lie to them so they'd try to sexuals him. Chainsaw Good : The first game mainly, but the second game features a smaller circular power saw.

Climbing Climax : Played straight and then inverted in the boss fight against Ramirez. Cash chases him up through several floors of an apartment building, but when he gets to the top, Ramirez runs right back down again and Cash has to chase him downstairs again.

Played straight in the final fight against Starkweather, who barricades himself manhunt his office in the top floor of his mansion. Deviants City Cruel and Unusual Death : Plenty of 'em.

Cutscene Incompetence : About half of the first game basically consists of "Cash makes his way through an area, gets captured by Starkweather's goons in a cutscene, gets dumped out in a new location", rinse and repeat.

Damsel in Distress : Sexuals journalist certainly manuunt like manhunt. Unlike the tramp in the previous Escort Missionshe will panic if Cash leaves her for too long, and says stereotypically girly things perhaps ironically sexauls complaining about her bad hair day. Unlike the tramp, Starkweather actively wants her dead which ,anhunt explain why she is so frightened, and probably part of the reason the tramp wasn't as frightened as her mangunt because manhuunt was too drunk to much notice his surroundings.

Darker and Edgier : Thought the first game was absurdly grim, drenched in urban decay, and brutal? The sequel, complete with a level named "Sexual Deviants" that channels Hostelis a giant Take That! The first game itself was much bleaker and more serious in tone than Rockstar North's previous output at that point, occasional flashes of Black Comedy aside. Death by Racism : It's possible to kill members of the Skinz midway through their white supremacist ranting.

Death by Sex : In the first game, it's possible sexuals lure manhunt an enemy who's busy deviante porn by breaking the circuit powering his TV. When he goes to fix it Cash can execute him. Deconstruction Game : The first game deconstructs and satirizes debiants conventional relationship between deviants and player character in violent video games.

The player character James Earl Cash is being controlled from the outset by Starkweather, a weird creepy guy sitting in a dark room in front of a computer screen, who watches him through cameras and urges him to commit unspeakably horrific acts. It's pretty obvious who Starkweather is meant to sexuals. And why does Starkweather urge Sexuzls to carry out these shockingly violent murders? For mahhunt better reason than he finds them deviants not to mention sexually arousing.

Disney Villain Death : How Piggsy dies. Unlike most examples, we get to see him hitting the ground. Difficulty Spike : In the first game, the increased emphasis on gunplay from about the tenth mission onwards makes the game substantially harder.

Enemy-Detecting Radar : This shows the enemy state, facing, and position. It is disabled on hardcore. Escort Mission : Not as bad as most, since you can tell the escorted individuals to hide in the shadows until you've dealt with all the hunters.

The tramp will have the presence of mind to actually follow Cash's instructions, whereas sexials the manhuht leaves the journalist behind for too long she esxuals panic and run after him, possibly giving away both of their positions. Everything's Better with Monkeys : One of the bonus missions in the first game, unlocked after you earn 3 stars each in sceneshas you revisiting the Carcer City Zoo to deal with a gang of psychos dressed up sexuals monkeys.

Evil vs.

As the result, the snuff film ring is finally exposed, in which is later discovered by the police. However, it's very likely that Cash already made his run and he's nowhere to be found. Manhunt 2 canonically ends with Daniel finally taking down Leo 's personality. Unfortunately, The Project have wiped out his memories in order to avoid Leo from reentering his mind. After that, Daniel wakes up in the middle of a road without any knowledge of who he is. Then, he finds a package containing info regarding his new identity and home.

With this, Daniel sets out to live a new life as David Joiner. Black and Gray Morality : Just about everyone in the first game is an Ax-Crazy murderer in some way, to the point that the Death Row convict is possibly the lesser evil.

Black Comedy : Starkweather's comments can be kind of funny every now and then. If anything this makes him even more frightening than he would otherwise be. The Smileys, while being one of the more disturbing gangs, provide some rather dark humor. Blood-Splattered Innocents : In the second game, Danny gets splattered in blood from his executions - doing enough "Violent" and "Gruesome" executions in a level can make it look like he swam through a whole river of it!

This also applies to Leo in the Flashback missions, although his considerably more callous Blood Knight attitude makes him more of a Blood-Splattered Warrior.

Bloodier and Gorier : The executions in Manhunt 2 are considerably more brutal than the ones in the first, so much so that they had to be censored to avoid an AO rating! Bond Villain Stupidity : In an instance of Cutscene Incompetence , Ramirez captures Cash and has him dead-to-rights after he's been given explicit instruction to kill him, and decides that now would be a good time to have his men continue Hunting the Most Dangerous Game rather than simply shooting him dead.

Boom, Headshot! Every firearm execution in the second game. Bowdlerised : The second game, to avoid an AO rating which is effectively a ban, since many shops refuse to stock games with it. That is, of course, assuming that Starkweather didn't just lie to them so they'd try to kill him. Chainsaw Good : The first game mainly, but the second game features a smaller circular power saw.

Climbing Climax : Played straight and then inverted in the boss fight against Ramirez. Cash chases him up through several floors of an apartment building, but when he gets to the top, Ramirez runs right back down again and Cash has to chase him downstairs again. Played straight in the final fight against Starkweather, who barricades himself in his office in the top floor of his mansion.

Crapsack City Cruel and Unusual Death : Plenty of 'em. Cutscene Incompetence : About half of the first game basically consists of "Cash makes his way through an area, gets captured by Starkweather's goons in a cutscene, gets dumped out in a new location", rinse and repeat.

Damsel in Distress : The journalist certainly acts like this. Unlike the tramp in the previous Escort Mission , she will panic if Cash leaves her for too long, and says stereotypically girly things perhaps ironically like complaining about her bad hair day. Unlike the tramp, Starkweather actively wants her dead which may explain why she is so frightened, and probably part of the reason the tramp wasn't as frightened as her is because he was too drunk to much notice his surroundings.

Darker and Edgier : Thought the first game was absurdly grim, drenched in urban decay, and brutal? The sequel, complete with a level named "Sexual Deviants" that channels Hostel , is a giant Take That!

The first game itself was much bleaker and more serious in tone than Rockstar North's previous output at that point, occasional flashes of Black Comedy aside. Death by Racism : It's possible to kill members of the Skinz midway through their white supremacist ranting.

Death by Sex : In the first game, it's possible to lure out an enemy who's busy watching porn by breaking the circuit powering his TV. When he goes to fix it Cash can execute him.

Deconstruction Game : The first game deconstructs and satirizes the conventional relationship between player and player character in violent video games. The player character James Earl Cash is being controlled from the outset by Starkweather, a weird creepy guy sitting in a dark room in front of a computer screen, who watches him through cameras and urges him to commit unspeakably horrific acts.

It's pretty obvious who Starkweather is meant to represent. And why does Starkweather urge Cash to carry out these shockingly violent murders? For no better reason than he finds them entertaining not to mention sexually arousing. Disney Villain Death : How Piggsy dies. Unlike most examples, we get to see him hitting the ground.

Difficulty Spike : In the first game, the increased emphasis on gunplay from about the tenth mission onwards makes the game substantially harder. Enemy-Detecting Radar : This shows the enemy state, facing, and position. It is disabled on hardcore. Escort Mission : Not as bad as most, since you can tell the escorted individuals to hide in the shadows until you've dealt with all the hunters. The tramp will have the presence of mind to actually follow Cash's instructions, whereas if the player leaves the journalist behind for too long she will panic and run after him, possibly giving away both of their positions.

Everything's Better with Monkeys : One of the bonus missions in the first game, unlocked after you earn 3 stars each in scenes , has you revisiting the Carcer City Zoo to deal with a gang of psychos dressed up as monkeys.

Evil vs. Evil : The first game involves a death row convict singlehandedly fighting against entire gangs of Axe-Crazy murderers and one sick and twisted individual with a fetish for extreme violence.

Executive Suite Fight : It's hardly a spoiler to say you're going to meet Starkweather face-to-face at the end of the first game, and it's not hard to guess where.

Eye Scream : One of the executions in the first game, a few in the second. Faceless Goons : A lot of the hunters wear masks or face paint. False Camera Effects : The main game camera uses a constant film-grain filter to make it resemble an old VHS tape, and during executions it uses more exaggerated camera effects as in the page image above.

Both of these can be disabled. Featureless Protagonist : Cash might as well be this - he barely speaks, and all we learn about him is that he was sentenced to death for an unspecified crime, he was never particularly close with his family and he's of mixed-race heritage.

Fed to Pigs : Piggsy, the sadistic psycho-killer in a mask made from a pig's head, believes that he's a pig, and feeds off corpses that the Cerberus provide for him. Foreshadowing : In the level "Broadcast Interrupted", there is a massacre near a projector. Daniel is sickened and asks what happened.

After Leo gives him a vague reply, Daniel demands him what really happened to which Leo doesn't answer. If the player clicks on it, they'll watch a short cutscene of Leo brutally killing a group of Project-members with a katana, but the screen itself shows that it's Daniel doing the deed , hinting that they are the same person. Leo: I tell you the whole story and your brain would implode. Trust me. The second has "Sane" and "Insane", which are basically the same thing. Improvised Weapon : The weapons you use include plastic bags, pens , pliers, fire extinguishers, telephones, and hedge-clippers.

Instant Sedation : If you score a headshot with the tranquilizer rifle in the first game, it will knock out enemies practically instantly. If you shoot them anywhere else, they'll pause in place feeling dizzy and be no worse for wear once they recover.

It's still enough time to perform an execution on them, though. Institutional Apparel : Something of a trademark outfit for the protagonists. Interface Screw : Getting shot with a tranquillizer dart causes the screen to blur and temporarily prevents the player from aiming with a gun.

It's Quiet Too Quiet : Spoken verbatim by Cerberus units. Giddily I've always wanted to say that! Machete Mayhem : Many of the Wardogs gang members in the first game wield these. Which of course can be turned on them with vicious effect. Meaningful Name : "Carcer" is a Latin word meaning "prison", from whence the word "incarcerate" is derived. Mook Horror Show : Picking off enemies one by one and watching them become increasingly frightened as their numbers grow smaller is immensely satisfying.

Leo's dialogue was toned down. Daniel throws up after executing the first Watchdog in the level "Ghosts" and also does the same "in awe" animation when killing the inmate in the fight tutorial after killing the second Watchdog in Ghosts. The pliers kill of the civilian in Red Light has the camera angle obscured. You could originally use the lever that controls the electric chair to kill the victim sitting in it in the level "Sexual Deviants.

The lever just does nothing and the victim is already dead in the edited versions. The rating system was removed.

An uncensored PAL PS2 version was leaked in May of by an employee of Sony Europe, the version had a lot of glitches, most of which were fixed in the retail version. From this perspective, direct effects of video gameplay may reflect change in unmeasured anti-social values that result as a consequence of identifying with such characters e.

The current longitudinal design has several strengths; in particular, its ability to examine change in behavioral outcomes and mediators over time. Thus, our findings with respect to drinking, smoking, and aggression occur after including autoregressive covariates. As a consequence, the observed effects of gaming can be interpreted in terms of increases in these outcomes. Likewise, our mixed modeling analyses reveal exponentially increasing differences in smoking and drinking over time as a function of gaming.

Unlike many designs, however, our study has the additional advantage that it begins with participants who are a playing videogames, but b at an age in which they are unlikely to be drinking or smoking to a significant degree as supported by the linear mixed modeling analyses. Despite its strengths, however, longitudinal designs are not experimental designs and as a consequence do not allow one to draw clear causal conclusions. According to this account, involvement in mature-rated, risk-glorifying games does not cause subsequent behavioral deviance; instead, it is an early sign of individuals who will subsequently develop a variety of problem behaviors.

Presumably, bad-seeds are attracted to such games because playing the games themselves is a kind of problem behavior. Note that this hypothesis does not require that children show any other problem behaviors at the time of initial gameplay, so demonstrating that associations are maintained after statistically controlling for prior behavioral deviance is insufficient to discredit it.

It is important to note that in order for a bad-seed hypothesis to account for the findings from the current research, it must do more than simply propose that gameplay is an early sign of problem behaviors to come. It must assume that a only certain kinds of game play are bad signs and b problem behaviors have a developmental course consistent with the observed mediational effects e.

The best evidence against a bad-seed account comes from lab-based experimental demonstrations that violent video gameplay increases subsequent thoughts, feelings, and actions in theoretically predictable ways. The literature on the causal effects of violent video gameplay on subsequent lab-based aggression is large and growing cf. These effects occurred despite the fact that none of the GTA images depicted or implied alcohol or sex, thus supporting an argument based on exposure to a deviant protagonist.

More experimental work is clearly necessary to resolve issues of causality. The present research expands the kinds of problem behaviors researchers should examine. In the meantime, whether play of mature-rated, risk glorifying video games causes subsequent behavioral deviance or is an early sign of serious behavioral problems to come, parents and society should take note of those adolescents who immerse themselves in the play of such games.

Despite strengths of the current design its large size, random sampling procedures, covariate controls, and multiwave longitudinal nature , the current study is also limited in several respects.

Although we have autoregressive lags for all of our measures of drinking and smoking, it is a limitation of the current design that we only have such lags for some measures aggressive behavior, and lack them for measures of delinquency and risky sex. As a consequence, we can draw relatively strong conclusions regarding MRRG gameplay and change in drinking and smoking over time; somewhat strong conclusions regarding MRRG gameplay and change in aggression; but can only draw inferences regarding associations of MRRG gameplay and delinquency and risky sex and not change in the latter variables.

A second limitation of the current research concerns the fact that the sample is restricted to adolescents. In our mind, it is quite likely that the observed effects of gameplay may be easier to observe among adolescents insofar as they may be more malleable in their attitudes, self-perceptions, and personality development than adults.

In a related vein, it is quite likely that the meaning of both MRRG gaming and our selected measures of deviant behavior change over the course of adolescence and young adulthood. For example, the very act of playing mature-rated games independent of their content may be edgy and exciting at the age of 13 in a way that it is not at 21 — just as drinking alcohol and smoking cigarettes is deviant and illegal at 15 but not Developmental changes in extent of deviance of each behavior should therefore be taken into account when drawing conclusions about the current research.

We recognize several limitations in the measures used in this research. First, our measures could have been longer and more varied in content. At the same time, we feel that the strength and breadth of the observed effects in the present study are testament to the fact that they tapped essential characteristics of MRRG gameplay that link it to behavioral deviance among adolescents.

With respect to the specific content of our video gameplay measures, we wish to emphasize that they assessed play of mature-rated risk-glorifying games. Analyses that simply distinguished those who did and did not play video games revealed very few effects after controlling for background demographics and no effects associated with our measures of behavioral deviance. This is an important variable in its own right and is associated with its own set of negative consequences. Finally, it should be noted that all of the variables in the current research involve self-reports and although objective measures of gameplay, drinking, smoking, fighting, behavioral deviance, and risky sex are difficult to obtain, future research based on such measures is warranted.

In conclusion, the current findings support the hypothesis that play of mature-rated, risk-glorifying video games can alter self-perceptions of personal characteristics, attitudes, and values with broad consequences for deviant behavior, including alcohol consumption, smoking, aggression, delinquency, and risky sex.

Subsidiary analyses suggest that these effects are similar for males and females, and strongest for those who report heavy play of mature-rated games and games that involve protagonists who represent non-normative and anti-social values. Interestingly, play of non-MRRG games would seem to confer a protective effect insofar as participants in this category reported lower levels of a variety of deviant behaviors relative to their non-game-playing counterparts.

Ultimately, these findings are consistent with what we have termed identity simulation logic. With respect to playing deviant video game characters, we feel it best to follow the admonition of Kurt Vonnegut in Mother Night:.

Sargent PI. Nonetheless, to date research and theory on the GAM has focused on what we characterize as behavioral simulation logic and lower level mediators. These are available on request from the first author. At the same time, we subscribe to the principle that the goal of modeling should not be to seek maximum absolute fit, but rather to use modeling to test the relative fit of alternative, theoretically derived models.

In the present context, SEM is used to test mediation: The utility of models that do or do not include indirect effects of video gameplay via theorized mediational pathways.

Jay G. Timothy J. Anna T. James D. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. J Pers Soc Psychol.

Author manuscript; available in PMC Aug 1. Hull , Timothy J. Brunelle , Anna T. Prescott , and James D. Author information Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Address correspondence to Jay G. Copyright notice. The publisher's final edited version of this article is available at J Pers Soc Psychol. See other articles in PMC that cite the published article. Abstract Character-based video games do more than allow one to practice various kinds of behaviors in a virtual environment, they allow one to practice being a different kind of person.

Keywords: video games, alcohol use, cigarette smoking, aggression, risky sex, delinquency. Theoretical accounts of the consequences of playing video games Given the focus of video game research on violent video games and aggressiveness, it is not surprising that theorizing regarding the consequences of playing such games has tended to focus on aggression-relevant constructs e.

Video games as identity simulators According to an identity simulation account, character-based video games provide more than opportunities to practice specific kinds of behaviors and experience associated thoughts and feelings ; they provide opportunities to try out different selves. Current study Although we feel that behavioral simulation and identity simulation models both provide valid accounts of different aspects of video gameplay, in the current study we are particularly interested in the association of playing mature-rated and risk-glorifying video games and adolescent risk behavior.

Alcohol Use Very few studies have related video game play and alcohol consumption. Methods Participants We conducted a multiwave random-digit-dial telephone survey of US adolescents. Procedures For the purposes of this report, the first survey in which questions about MRRG video game play were included is designated as Wave 0.

Personality measures Measures of individual differences in sensation seeking and rebelliousness were collected at both Waves 0 and 1. Alcohol consumption measures Measures of alcohol consumption were collected at Waves 0, 1, 2, and 3. Alcohol prototypes, alcohol expectancies, and friend drinking Attitudinal tolerance for deviance was assessed in terms of association with and positive perceptions of peers who drink as well as positive expectancies regarding the effects of alcohol assessed at both Waves 0 and 1.

Results Gameplay Descriptive Statistics In our sample, Mixed Modeling Repeated Measures Analyses For modeling the association of MRRG gameplay and various aspects of alcohol use over time, we treated each alcohol measure separately as a dependent variable assessed at four time points in a factorial linear mixed model.

Open in a separate window. Figures 1a-d. Direct effects model Consistent with Hypothesis 1, an initial, direct effects model was specified in which MRRG gameplay was used to predict sensation seeking, rebelliousness, alcohol expectancies, alcohol prototypes, friend drinking, and alcohol consumption over time after covarying the value of each variable at the previous point in time. Figure 2a. Direct effects model for alcohol use. Mediational model Consistent with Hypothesis 2, a mediational model was specified in which MRRG gameplay was predicted to affect alcohol use in part because of its effects of increasing sensation seeking and rebelliousness and making alcohol consumption attractive in terms of prototype perceptions, expectancies, and affiliations.

Figure 2b. Trimmed mediational model for alcohol use. Discussion Among those who play video games, , higher initial levels of mature-rated, risk glorifying video game play were associated with greater levels of alcohol use across multiple waves of data, and multiple measures of alcohol consumption.

Cigarette Smoking Few studies have examined the association of playing video games and cigarette smoking. Measures Cigarette smoking measures Measures of smoking were collected at Waves 0, 1, 2, and 3. Friend smoking and smoking expectancies To assess friend smoking, participants were asked how many of their friends smoke cigarettes none, some , or most.

Results Mixed Modeling Repeated Measures Analyses For modeling the association of video gameplay and various aspects of cigarette smoking over time, we treated each smoking measure separately as a continuous dependent variable assessed at four time points in a factorial linear mixed model.

Figures 3 a-c. Direct effects model Consistent with Hypothesis 1, an initial, direct effects model was specified in which MRRG gameplay was used to predict personality variables, smoking expectancies, friend smoking, and cigarette smoking over time after covarying the value of each variable at the previous point in time. Figure 4a. Direct effects model for cigarette smoking. Mediational model Consistent with Hypothesis 2, a mediational model was specified in which MRRG gameplay was predicted to affect smoking in part because of its effects of increasing sensation seeking and rebelliousness, making smoking attractive in terms of expectancies, and promoting associations with others who smoke.

Figure 4b. Discussion Paralleling effects observed for alcohol use, among those who play video games, high relative to low play of mature-rated, risk glorifying games was associated with greater and exponentially increasing levels of cigarette smoking.

Aggression As noted earlier, experimental research has generally found that playing violent videogames in a lab setting increases subsequent aggressive behavior and decreases prosocial and cooperative behavior.

Results Structural Equation Modeling Because the Wave 0 and Wave 1 measures of aggression were different from those collected at Waves 2 and 3, a mixed modeling approach that examined change over all four waves of time was not feasible. Direct effects model Consistent with Hypothesis 1, an initial, direct effects model was specified in which MRRG gameplay was used to predict personality variables and aggression over time after covarying the value of each variable at the previous point in time.

Figure 5a. Mediational model Consistent with Hypothesis 2, a mediational model was specified in which MRRG gameplay was predicted to affect aggression in part because of its effects of increasing sensation seeking and rebelliousness. Figure 5b. Discussion Among those who played video games, higher initial levels of mature-rated, risk glorifying video game play were associated with greater levels of aggression across multiple measures and multiple waves of data.

Measures Delinquent behavior Delinquent behavior was assessed with nine measures collected at Wave 3. Sexual behavior Questions regarding sexual behavior were only asked of participants 18 years of age or older.

Direct effects model An initial, direct effects model was specified in which MRRG gameplay was used to predict personality variables after covarying the value of each variable at the previous point in time. Figure 6a.

Direct effects model for alcohol use, smoking, delinquent, and risky sexual behavior. Mediational model Next, a mediational model was specified in which MRRG gameplay was predicted to affect behavioral deviance in part because of its effects of increasing sensation seeking and rebelliousness. Figure 6b. Trimmed mediational model for alcohol use, smoking, delinquent, and risky sexual behavior.

Hierarchical mediational model Finally, a mediational model was specified in which alcohol consumption, smoking, delinquent behavior, and sexual behavior all served as indicators of a single hierarchical latent construct: Behavioral Deviance. Figure 6c. Mediated hierarchical model for alcohol use, smoking, delinquent, and risky sexual behavior.

Subsidiary Analyses In order to more completely explore our data, two sets of analyses were conducted to examine the relationship of our outcome measures with patterns of gaming and the gender of gamers. Video Game Players versus Non-players As noted throughout this manuscript, the hypothesized relations of MRRG gameplay and behavioral deviance were tested using only those who play video games.

Figure 7. Behavioral deviance z-scores by response category for video gameplay. Sensation Seeking and Rebelliousness measured at Wave 1; all other variables measured at Wave 3. Individual Games A corollary of the argument that playing character-based video games involves an identity simulating process is that characters and motives matter.

General Discussion Across a wide variety of measures, MRRG gameplay was associated with deviant adolescent risk behavior including excessive alcohol use, cigarette smoking, aggression, delinquency, and risky sex. Interpretative Issues Research always raises as many issues as it addresses. Accounting for the direct effects of video gameplay Despite evidence for our hypothesized mediators, direct effects of MRRG gameplay remain in all of our analyses.

Causal, reverse causal, and spurious accounts of video game effects The current longitudinal design has several strengths; in particular, its ability to examine change in behavioral outcomes and mediators over time. Limitations Despite strengths of the current design its large size, random sampling procedures, covariate controls, and multiwave longitudinal nature , the current study is also limited in several respects.

Design issues Although we have autoregressive lags for all of our measures of drinking and smoking, it is a limitation of the current design that we only have such lags for some measures aggressive behavior, and lack them for measures of delinquency and risky sex. Sample issues A second limitation of the current research concerns the fact that the sample is restricted to adolescents. Measurement issues We recognize several limitations in the measures used in this research. Conclusion In conclusion, the current findings support the hypothesis that play of mature-rated, risk-glorifying video games can alter self-perceptions of personal characteristics, attitudes, and values with broad consequences for deviant behavior, including alcohol consumption, smoking, aggression, delinquency, and risky sex.

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