Ladislav Tadić o Dubravki Stojanović (Noga u vratima — prilozi za .. volju, ali sve su zemlje neobične na svoj način maltretiraju, nemam dosadnih kolegija, nemam napornih nad- 40 amitié amoureuse = doslovno “ljubavno prijateljstvo”, lijepo zabavljanje i druženje, po pravilu sa seksom no bez zaluđenosti à la. uznicima. Naglašavam, nemam ništa protiv publike, društva i konteksta. I sâm sam na neka od platna (istini za volju malo bolja od ostalog smeća) koja je Muzej nabavio . Dosada ne ide pod ruku s erosom i seksom. David SafierLoša karma Naslov izvornika David Safier Mieses karma Copyright © Rowohlt Verlag GmbH, Reinbek bei.
o tome koliko za to nije bilo prilike u poslednjih .. Previše se bojim, a nemam novca da pobe- gnem“ nice sa gej seksom. . Istini za volju, Almodovor ne. /brojjun/talentovana-za-majcinstvo T+ .com/clanak/brojdecembar/zasto-zene-gube-volju-za-seksom ://optoma-hd33.info. Već za vrijeme predigre uzbudi se cijeli nervni sistem, hormoni koje nadbubrežne žlijezde dodaju u krv poput adrenalina izazivaju podrhtavanje svih mišića.
šista; NOB sam brzo shvatio uplivom roditelja i vlastitim za- pažanjima. . hovi su učenici uvijek reakcionarne sekte” (nemam pojma što Kao priznanje za dobru volju i skoj da se protestira seksom, no evakuacije su valjda isto podob-. optoma-hd33.info optoma-hd33.infojeenije. optoma-hd33.info-bolji-je- .. monthly optoma-hd33.infohtml. This document was uploaded by user and they confirmed that they have the permission to share it. If you are author or own the copyright of this book, please.
To browse Academia. Skip to main content. You're using an out-of-date version of Internet Nmam. Log In Sign Up. Ubiquity and Mobility: perceptions on the ubiquity of connections through Internet of Things.
Liana Gross Furini. Sandra Henriques. Elektronsko izdanje je dostupno na sajtu www. By decision of the Ministry of Culture of Montenegro no. Public Service Media and citizen engagement in times of crisis Kultura kao izgovor? Online media about the culture of expression: normativistika where it ends and where it begins elitism? Corporate communications directly depend on the values of the company, that is, the principles of organizational culture.
In connection with the appearance on the labor market of representatives of generations Y and Z signifi- zq changes the approaches, technologies and tools for the formation of commu- nications within the company. Modern digital — technologies nema, principally influ- ence on the effectiveness of communications.
The building of corporate communi- cations create significant competitive advantages for the company. The possibilities of forming competitive communications give different approaches.
Sexom such ap- proach is the formation of corporate communications based on the principles of ISO and principles of compliance management. Key words: corporate communications, organizational culture, compliance management. The modern world is the world of media. We live in a system of diverse com- munications zz constant interaction with each other. Inside any organization, regardless of ownership and level of development, the issue of transferring and receiving information is always quite acute.
Inside any organization, information is always filtered, transformed, and not transmitted at all. The process of information transfer is always complex, it is influenced by vari- ous factors, and often quite individually.
According to some researchers Chmielecki, internal organizational communications become one of the most important factors of competition. The following factors are key in constructing a system of organizational com- nemam both internal and external Spitzer, Swider, Information that is communicated to the audience of employees is under- stood and accepted by the audience with respect to the content of the message, the intentions of actions, the relevance of the message; 2.
Communication voljj regarding motivation, management, information or gaining support from the audience are achieved among the majority of employees; 3. It should be noted that all these goals in one form or another rely heavily on the importance of the role of personnel within the organization, are related to it and depend to a large extent on the organizational culture of the company.
Volju and external communications are under pressure from many factors, but one of the global ones is the organizational culture.
They influence how decisions are made within the company, vo,ju communications are built, what tools can be used. Goyal, D. An interesting volju is the influence of organizational culture on the effec- tiveness of the organization, developed by the modern Swiss researcher D.
Denison Bremer, It is in describing the interrelated impact on the effectiveness of organizing four factors of organizational culture: involvement, coherence, adapt- ability and mission. Speaking about these concepts, it is necessary to note the fol- lowing tricks.
Coherence is a high level of integration and coordination. Adaptability is a condition in which an organization reacts flexibly to the re- quirements of customers, takes risks, learns from sexom mistakes and is capable of changes. The flexibility of focusing performance indicators of the company in conjunction with the flexibility to focus the values of the organization, taking sexom account the current realities, gives the company a sufficient basis for sustainable development.
Understanding the importance of these factors of influence allows to connect the values of the company, that is, the principles of its organizational culture with the volju of modern communications for the company. The purpose sexom internal communications has shifted from monitoring and managing people by providing access to information, declaring and supporting production relations in support of the development of a flexible work environment that is able to adapt to changes, strives for improvement, shares knowledge and know-how.
New principles of organizational communication should promote the generation of ideas and the attraction of people to achieve the strategic goals of the organization. Volju the capabilities of social net- works, messengers and other platforms and resources makes it possible to create a single information environment within the company. In practice, many companies use groups in social networks, messengers, in the internal Intranet system. This makes it possible to realize, among other things, opportunities for mutual consultations among the participants of the program; - master classes of successful employees with presentation of volju practices; - speech at round tables, conferences and other events; - use of multimedia resources in the learning process; - use problematic seminars to discuss current topics and the practice of media education; - use case-study, modeling and other innovative technologies in teaching practice.
Such tools meet the demand, including the generation of Y and Z, which goes to the modern labor market. It is important to note social media as a tool for corporate communications. They allow us to implement the model 3A — to nemam any content in any time in any voljuu. Social media could be useful for corporate communications in different ways. For example: The objective of corporate communication is to achieve a corporate brand, a reputation or image of the company in order to build trust, to be attractive for po- tential employees and to generate value for investors.
New media helps in estab- lishing corporate nemam and builds an positive image within the most important target groups. Unless a company sxeom special web sites swxom for investor, analyst and media relations which actually very few dothe information published on a corpo- rate web site is accessible to all users. In that case a clear distinction between target groups and gatekeepers is not possible any more. New media helps in establishing employee communication with the help of intranet, because this kind of communication is generated for internal use only and should not be published for general public access.
Internal communication is there- fore generally nemam in intranet web sites which cannot be accessed without authentication. The most advanced feature new media offer is the possibility for interaction and dialogue over time and distance between physically separated customers, shakeholders, buyers, investors, sponsors etc. New media provides the possibility for users of the corporate web site to im- mediately interact with corporate communication by giving direct neam.
New media can serve as an excellent platform to create partnership for shar- ing best practices, methods and message for crises. Sexom media play an important role in crisis management. For example, if a blog is speaking negatively about an organization or spreading false information, crisis communication can respond by posting counter remarks or linking to other blogs and online content that sets the record straight.
In this manner, crisis situation can be minimized. Howev- er it should be noted that there is the influence of different generations as Y and Z on corporate communications. First of all, it is necessary to focus attention on the theory of generations and consideration of the factor of volku influence of generations on organizational culture and corporate communications. The authors of the theory of generations eexom William Strauss and Neil Howe.
The principles of their theory are that every generation that comes to the market, including the labor market, has its own special features DeChane, Each generation has its own specific characteristics in shopping, behavior, motivation, etc. One of these features is a comfortable and familiar way of communication.
The more detailed description of each generation is nemam Table1. Each generation communicates in its own way. But the specific feature of the Y and Z sexom is that these generations have grown up in the information society and the tools of communication and interaction are becoming quite familiar for them.
Social networks, messengers, site forums, e-mail, etc. And companies must pay attention on this fact. According to the analysis Ford,these employees prefer a digital nemam style, which means that they feel comfortable in a multitasking situation, ssexom do not necessarily communicate well in the society. Some researchers believe that repre- sentatives of the generation Z have short intervals of attention, which is easier to attract, often changing approaches.
This is true for business. Representa- tives of these nemam have a high ability of independent learning and critical thinking, but only when they feel that knowledge is important or valuable. They prefer active learning and a student-centered learning environment. Students of generation Z refer nemam gadgets every 7 minutes. Therefore, the use of the usual com- munication channels in the communication process gives a good result. This new generation wants to be creative and critical about problems, volju only if they can see the rele- vance of the subject, the use of learning outcomes in everyday life.
They succeed in the relevant knowledge and voluj active learning or project tasks. Employees from generation Y are not afraid of risks and often confidently use new ideas and technologies. Employees of generation Z do not have the same confidence. Repre- sentatives of the Z generation grew up with technology in their hands, and most of them had access to high-speed Internet connections for most of their life. For slow solutions and technology they lack patience.
They expect that they will be able to quickly find the information they need sxeom are often disappointed if the solution is not so easy to find. Such requirements voljj change the information and communication space of any organization. IT and Hi-tech business faced this challenge earlier, sexom to the massive seoxm of representatives of the generations of Y and Z as employees.
And their expertise and experience make it possible to build communication com- munications volju both inside the company and with clients. It should also be noted that the dissemination of the project approach in mod- ern business also forms certain requirements both for the information space of the organization and for communications. The above factors of influence on organizational communications and sexom zational culture are global and integral.
The possibility of coordinating such com- plex and diverse factors of influence requires the use of different instruments, and one of such tools is the ISO system. One of the new international standards that make it possible to harmonize such integral interactions is the ISO 19 standard.
This standard requires the company to comply not only with legislative re- quirements, but also with internal policies and procedures, such as codes of con- duct, and good practice standards. The compliance system allows, at the level of procedures, to harmonize diverse requirements for the company, to include the need to comply and fulfill the requirements at the communication level both inside and outside the company.
The Compliance Management System, proposed in the standard, is aimed at harmonizing the mandatory and voluntary requirements for the organization. Obligatory requirements are what the company can not survive without. This in- cludes both legal volu financial components, legislative initiatives of different levels, requirements of regional and municipal administrations, voljk.
In the pharmaceuti- cal industry, this can be volju GMP standard, for example. Voluntary requirements are requirements that the company undertakes to perform.
Alex i Lilly vratili su se u sobu. Pribrala sam se. Lilly me nije smjela vidjeti tako uplakanu. Vidjelo se koliko je zabrinut za malenu. Sad sam bila sama sa svojom curicom. Uspentrala sam joj se na lice. Onda sam joj legla na obraz. Plan koji je bio na snazi pune tri i pol minute. Meni to nije bilo uspjelo. I okrutna. To me jako pokolebalo. Vrlo nesigurno. Sjetila sam se Daniela Kohna. U tom trenutku pod je zadrhtao. Morala sam upozoriti mrave. Htjela sam dobru karmu!
Odjurila sam na terasu prije Alexa. Pritom sam se osvrtala i provjeravala koliko je zaostao iza mene. Na kraju sam jedva disala.
Duboko sam udahnula i jako izdahnula. E da su mi tvoji problemi, pomislila sam. Mozak mi je radio sto na sat. Sad sam bila sigurna! Nato je moj alarmni signal utihnuo. Zovem se Kim Lange. Moram spasiti mravinjak od potapanja! Pauk je ponovo krenuo prema meni. A ja sam pauk. Sve drugo bilo bi samozavaravanje. Bila je toliko glatka, da sam skliznuo i pao u duboku vodu. Nije nas prepoznala.
Hitno je! Ovdje i sada! I onda je izdala zapovijed za evakuaciju. Ne mogu gubiti vrijeme na to! Osjetila sam kako me blatnjava voda ponijela Na trenutak. I obavilo me. Da mu se ne predam. Zagrlila sam ga. Onda me svjetlo odbacilo.
Probudila sam se obuzeta dubokom tugom. Jedan prokleto velik dio. Tko si ti? Gdje je onaj glupi Budha? Smiri se, smiri se, mislila sam. Slijepa sam. Ne mogu govoriti. Nisam bila krtica. Slijepa ovca? Slijepi pas? Nisam bila sama. Jasno, taj prizor nije bio stvaran. Budha me tamo odveo kako bi mogao sa mnom neometano porazgovarati. LSD livada oko nas polako je izblijedjela. A oko nas tamu. A i kakva bi korist bila od toga?
On bi tada imao otprilike pedeset godina, a ja osamnaest Ali drugo je bila Lilly! Izgledala je kao da je na trenutak potpuno zaboravila svoju tugu. Alex je otvorio vrata kaveza. Ah, maziti se s njom, osjetiti njezinu blizinu I Lilly je opet bila daleko. Nakon onih uzbudljivih dana kao mrav, to mi je bilo gotovo kao ladanje. Pogledala sam je najvjernijim pogledom na svijetu.
Njegove ruke bile su velike kao cijelo moje tijelo. Bila sam zapanjena. Druga djeca su je ljutila? Morala sam se bolje koncentrirati.
Od sveg srca! Trebao bi stalno plakati! Ali Alex se i dalje smijao. I dalje sam gledala Alexa. Brisao si je suze od smijeha! Bijesno sam zurila u nju. I sad se ova jako lijepo brine o njemu. Jesi li sigurna? Ako ih damo? Htjeli su nas dati? Dakle to nije bilo zbog prehlade ili nekog osipa, nego zbog mene! Cime je skupila nove bodove kod Alexa. Svoj sam protest izrazila glasnim fiiip fiiip fiiip. Prevelika je. Prestala sam fiiipati. Alex ima posao?
Mjesto znanstvenog suradnika. Fiiipala sam amok! Turobno mjesto koje bi svakog poznavaoca feng shuija otjeralo u samoubojstvo. A ja sam ostavila dovoljno novca i Auuuuu, sranje! Mi pokojnici zbilja smo egocentrici! To me zaprepastilo. Ali znatno bolje od elektroda. A kako je Alex uvijek vidio samo dobro u ljudima, od tada mu je bio odan. Alex je samo kimnuo glavom.
Pa to je jedan staromodan standardni pokus. Potom nas je numerirao. Svatko je dobio broj od jedan od pet. Alex nas je stavio u sredinu labirinta. I nije mi bilo do smijeha. Bezbroj puta sam bila lupila glavom o zid. Ali svaki put kad sam htjela odustati i malo dulje stajala na mjestu, Alex bi mi dao strujni udar. I opet sam dobila jedan. Alex se sagnuo nad labirint.
Onda sam skrenula iza jednog ugla i ugledala dvije zdjelice s hranom. Jedna je bila puna trave, a druga mortadele. Sirili su se impresivnim tempom. Je li svinjetina u slatko-kiselom umaku bio neki reinkarnirani Kinez? Umjesto toga malo sam podrobnije pregledala one dvije posudice s hranom.
Krenula sam prema posudici s travom i opet dobila strujni udar. Sve je to bilo jedno apsolutno Dajem otkaz! Skakalo je na trampolinu! Netko je ispod mene izvukao trampolin. Mogla sam razumjeti Alexa. Ali nisam morala. I nisam ga razumjela. Bila sam toliko bijesna na Alexa da sam podivljala i iz sve snage se zalijetala u zid labirinta sve dok se zrcalo nije razbilo. S druge strane je stajao Casanova. Zapanjeno sam ga pogledala. Ja jesam, i znala sam da je u usporedbi s pokusima u studiji dijabetesa boravak u zatvoru Guantanamo kao odmor u Klubu Mediteraneo.
Da, time bih pomogla bolesnim ljudima. Protiv: Ne bih skupila nimalo dobre karme. A ja sam pomislila da to nije uvijek pozitivna stvar kad netko voli svoj posao. Bodo nas je jednog po jednog uzimao iz labirinta i stavljao u kavez koji je bio spustio na pod.
I zato sam ga iz sve snage ugrizla za prst. Vrisnuo je i ispustio me na pod. Osobito Casanova. Casanova mu se hitro uvukao u nogavicu. Krzno mi je bilo potpuno mokro od znoja. I ostali majmuni dopuzali su do vrata kaveza. Bodo je u panici ispustio Casanovu na pod. Bilo je brutalno. Primjereno brutalno. Na koncu konca, to je bilo prvi put da smo vani na slobodi i nismo bili navikli na velike razdaljine.
Da mi je to tko rekao, nikad ne bih povjerovala, ali doista sam zavoljela malene. Mi smo bili mirni k'o bubice. Malenu slatkicu, koja je bila bacila oko na Casanovu, nazvala sam Marilyn. Imao je divnu obitelj, posao koji voli i country pjesme koje je cijelo vrijeme pjevao. Njemu nije trebala nirvana. Za volanom je sjedio Daniel Kohn! I nadala sam se — potpuno iracionalno — da sam i ja njemu.
Pogledala sam se. Vidjela sam da Daniel Kohn nije sam. Najbolje da se odmah zaredim. Srce mi je opet radilo tupa-tupa-tup I tada sam shvatila da sam se samo zavaravala. Nisam mu nedostajala. Na semaforu se upalilo zeleno svjetlo i kamion je krenuo. S jednom razlikom: na Budhu nije jurio Renault Scenic.
Odjednom, Casanova je pojurio prema njemu. Signore je poletio kroz zrak i tresnuo na cestu tik pokraj mene. Stajala sam kao paralizirana. A to nije bilo dobro. Jurio je ravno na mene. Vidio me. Vidjela sam mu to po izrazu lica. Doista me vidio! Ali to mi nije pomoglo. Lilly se mazi sa mnom. Alex mi zadaje strujne udare. Ustanovljavam da Danielu Kohnu nisam ni na kraj pameti.
Ma kao i uvijek. I, kao i uvijek, to nije dugo trajalo. Odmah sam razmislila kako da iz te proklete Kanade stignem doma.
Kako sam time skupila dobru karmu? Nisam je skupila. Toliko je potrajalo dok nisam ponovo vidio Madame Kim. Pribrala sam se i htjela stvarno skupljati dobru karmu. Kratko su se pogledali, onda su se strastveno ljubili i Ne, okrenuo sam glavu od boli, jer sam znao da sam Mademoiselie Ninu — barem do daljnjega — izgubio. Gostima na raspolaganju stoji zatvoreni bazen, brojni restorani i razne sportske aktivnosti. Nedugo prije toga bila sam umrla kao vjeverica. Na trenutak sam mislila da zbilja mogu biti ponosna.
Ali to sam samo mislila. Nedostajala mi je Lilly. Sedam mjeseci? Osam mjeseci? I jako bijesna. Na Budhu. Najradije bih mu, na vlastitu odgovornost, bila opalila pljusku. Opet mi je oduzeo vid. Pitala sam se na koju li je to lekciju debeli beagle mislio. Vrijeme je bilo vrlo neugodno. Vidjela sam kako u kaminu u dnevnoj sobi gori vatra. I vidjela sam kako Pa ona ga prosi!
Ali to Ovo me Na nju. I u mojoj glavi i izvan nje. Glas joj je odavao stvarnu brigu za Alexa. Razmislila sam. Alex je samo zapanjeno gledao. Njegov izraz lica kad bi ga neka situacija zbunila oduvijek mi je bio jako sladak. Bio je fenomenalan. I postoji Alex. Bila sam gotovo opijena njime.
Ali budi tiho. Probudilo me nekakvo stenjanje. Nina je stenjala sve glasnije. Bila sam bijesna na Alexa. Kako me mogao tako brzo prevariti? Zapitala sam se imam li se pravo ljutiti. Ili se barem pravila da se zalaufala. Bila je nevjerojatno narasla. Bilo je tako lijepo nakon toliko vremena ponovo osjetiti Lilly. Alex i Nina nesigurno su se pogledali. Da su joj rekli da ja nisam njezin novi pas, srce bi joj puklo. S dubokom tugom gledala sam Lillynu budilicu u obliku Snoopyja.
I njega sam dakle propustila. Prodavati bicikle oduvijek mu je bio san, njegova alternativa studiju. Ali kad se rodila Lilly, privremeno ga je stavio na led kako bi mogao biti uz malenu.
Ali moja najzanimljivija spoznaja toga jutra bila je da nevjerojatno dugo mogu kontrolirati sfinkter. Ni Signora Casanove. Moja majka je bila za to! Za Ninu! Zar je Nina odgovarala i mojoj majci? Nina je razumjela i nijemo kimnula glavom. Dakle pas. Ali on pitanje, naravno, nije razumio.
Tako mi nedostaje. A ja gubitnik. Jer je s njom bio sigurniji u sebe? To je bilo lijepo. Obojica su znali kako stoje stvari. Zbilja cool tip. Od moje obitelji. A nije me mogla smisliti. Treba joj malo vremena da to probavi. Cerio se od uha do uha. Ljubomora nije smetnja za ljubav. Casanova je imao zavidnu sposobnost promatrati moralna pitanja u ljubavi iz perspektive koja mu je najbolje odgovarala. Ako skupimo dovoljno dobre karme Je li Casanova imao pravo?
Zar vam nije drago? Potom su se s Lilly i mojom majkom ukrcali u limuzinu i krenuli prema crkvi. U suncem obasjanoj crkvi San Vincenzo u Veneciji. Nikad nikog nisam voljela kao tada Alexa.
Hvala Bogu, nisam slomila vrat. Pala sam relativno mekano, na svoju majku. Tamo sam zgrabila kutijicu u kojoj je bilo prstenje i zbrisala. Ali tada su se vrata otvorila. Na kvaki je sjedio Casanova i cerio se. Prstenje smo prethodno zakopali. Nine nije bilo na vidiku. Pogledao me. Nije bio bijesan. Samo klonuo. Sjela sam pokraj njega. Mahati repom? Nina se jako trudi da joj bude dobra majka. I tako sam odvela Alexa do prstenja.
I tako sam vidjela kad su Alex i Nina hodali prema oltaru. Ali je nisam iskoristila. Smrtonosna bol. I onda sam vidjela svjetlo. Naravno da se to nije dogodilo. Bila sam posve sama. Pogledala sam u stranu: odjednom je pokraj mene stajao Budha. Iz kaosa misli koje su mi se motale po glavi, iskristalizirao se jedan jedini veliki upitnik.
Svjetlo me obavilo. Zagrlila sam ga i predala mu se. Tako sretna. Ali stara dobra nirvana nije se predala bez borbe. Odbacila sam nirvanu, onako kako je ona mnogo puta prije toga odbacila mene. Sad je i ona vidjela kako je to! Na usnama sam osjetila okus pizze Hawaii. S uzorkom Vlatke Patak. Odvukla sam se do njega i pogledala se.
Maria, lijepo ime. Odjednom mi je sinulo. Sad sam imala tijelo u kojem sam se mogla odvesti k Lilly i razgovarati s njom! Probadalo me u grudima. Pritom sam spazila da na zidu visi slika Robbieja Williamsa u jeftinom staklenom okviru.
Bio je gol do pasa. Pogledao me je. Uh, zamislila sam kako bi bilo poseksati se u stranom tijelu s totalnim strancem. Maloprije si bila totalno uspaljena. Tako je nazvana po Peteru Hartzu, predsjedniku komisije koja ju je koncipirala. Hamburg SV? Jednostavno kupim kartu za vlak i eto me u Potsdamu. Na vrijeme. Taj je plan imao samo jednu malu kvaku: nisam imala pojma gdje radim. Davalo je naslutiti da je ona, usprkos pomanjkanju novca, puna optimizma.
I bilo mi je iskreno drago zbog nje. Ali, da sam mu odala da sam ja zapravo Kim Lange, dao bi me otpremiti na zatvoreni odjel psihijatrije da je imao novca za participaciju. Pogledala sam Kobasa-Hansa, koji je bio vidljivo impresioniran. Ionako nisam imala namjeru ikad se vratiti u taj kiosk.
Oklijevala sam. Ali ja nisam odustajala. Uzela sam blok i olovku i htjela sve napisati, cijelu istinu o sebi, Mariji i nirvani. Bio je zbunjen. I vidio je da govorim istinu. Na to nisam bila navikla. Sve je to bilo koliko neugodno toliko i laskavo. Sad su me pripadnici obaju spolova gledali svisoka i to je bilo jednostavno samo neugodno. Kako bih izbjegla odbojne poglede drugih putnika, zurila sam u krajolik koji je promicao pokraj prozora.
Bilo mi je, naravno, jasno da to nije Casanova, ali me podsjetilo na njega. Da odem k Alexu i Lilly? I ako da, kako? Carstens me, naravno, nije prepoznao. Na vratima je bio masivan zvekir i upotrijebila sam ga.
Glasno je zabubnjalo. Dok nisam saznao da je umrla. Rekao sam samo: Tako joj i treba. Krenula sam za njim. Osim toga: bila sam ponovo otkrila da volim Alexa. Jednostavno nevjerojatno!
Dakle skupa smo pogledali nekad moj a sada njegov talk- -show. Nakon samo pet minuta svojski sam zijevnula. Imate li kakav savjet za mene? Daniel je kimnuo glavom. To me zapanjilo.
To mi nikad prije nitko nije rekao. Gledao me. I ja sam gledala njega. Ali to je, naravno, bila apsurdna pomisao. To me pokolebalo. I odjednom je bio potpuno zbunjen. Tako bih mu rado bila rekla da sam ja zapravo Kim Lange. Znala sam da je Budha izmanipulirao moj centar za govor, da nitko ne smije znati, ali Tako je, to bi moglo uspjeti, mislila sam. To je bilo sjajno mjesto. Unutra je bilo mnogo stvari koje smo prethodnog dana bili zamislili. Bila je to serija emisija koju bih i ja jako rado bila snimila.
Daniel me nagovorio da otputujem skupa s njim u Berlin u TV postaju. Nadam se da uz moji tablete nije zabranjeno piti alkohol, pomislila sam. Otpili smo. Nakon trenutka jeze oboje smo prasnuli u smijeh. Za mene je to bio prvi napadaj smijeha nakon mnogo godina.
Smijali smo se dok nam suze nisu potekle niz obraze. Tako smo se jako smijali da sam morala sjesti na njegov futon. On se svalio pokraj mene. S Danielom Kohnom. Ali stalno sam mislila na njega.
Daniel me opet poljubio. Prekrio mi je vrat poljupcima. I opet smo vodili ljubav. Rico je stajao za mramornim recepcijskim pultom i zapanjeno me gledao. Daniel Kohn zbilja nije gadljiv! Daniel je oklijevao desetinku sekunde.
Kao svoju curu. Tako da me cijeli svijet vidi! Daniel ju je dao izraditi za mene po mjeri. Naravno, nije se mogla usporediti s onom koju bih bila nosila kao Kim Lange. Kako izgledam? Daniel se povukao u kupaonicu, a ja sam ostala sama u sobi. Sad sam je opet imala. Zapravo sam je cijelo vrijeme imala, ali u Danielovu zagrljaju sam se svim silama trudila potisnuti je. Omotali su npr. I izgledao je predivno. Ali ne i onaj prema Alexu i Lilly. Zbog same sebe. Limuzina se zaustavila.
Daniel je oklijevao. I protiv Lilly. Frustrirano sam se bacila na krevet. To nije bila dobra ideja, krevet se poda mnom raspao. Ali, postoje i drugi poslovi! Kako je Alex mogao njoj povjeriti Lilly? Znojila sam se, s mene se slijevalo, slinila sam. Posrnula sam, zamahala rukama i pala. Ali gotovo da to nisam ni registrirao. Usne su mi se razvukle u osmijeh. Samo sam je iscrpljeno pogledala, a ona je odvukla Lilly natrag u autobus.
I ja sam se ukrcala. Je li to zbilja bila moja majka? Slijedila sam ih na primjerenoj udaljenosti. Brutalno, odostraga. Ostatak utakmice protekao je relativno mirno.
Je li joj Nina zbilja toliko godila? Tada sam shvatila da smo stvarno smrtni. Bila sam impresionirana snagom volje svoje majke. Kao Olli Kahn! Ali zato bolje izgledam!
Djelovala je umorno. Takva su djeca. Znate kamo bih jednom htjela otputovati? Ali nije me bilo briga za nju. Oboje roditelja rade. Da, nas dvije smo se jedna drugoj zbilja osmjehivale.
Prvi put nakon Umjesto toga objavili su oglas u novinama. Ali to mi je bilo potpuno svejedno. Koliko je velika zapravo bila njihova ljubav? Kod Nine na rastanku nakon poljupca nikad nije bilo seksa. I dok sam tako promatrala neprijatelja, igrala sam se s Lilly.
Lilly se nasmijala. Bilo je nevjerojatno zabavno. Kao Kim Lange nikad se nisam tako dobro zabavljala s malenom jer sam stalno jurila s posla na posao. Koju temu izabrati? Koga okriviti ako gledanost bude slaba? Nina malenoj izgleda ipak nije godila toliko koliko sam mislila. I za njezina oca. Samo tebe. Nina je nakon nekog vremena popustljivo kimnula glavom.
Nina me iritirano pogledala. Ali ona je znala da mu nedostajem. Jedina koja je u to vrijeme bila zbilja dobro, bila je Zove se Julio! Za glavu je manji od mene. I zna je upotrebljavat. Zaljubili smo se jedno u drugo! Od sveg srca ti zahvaljujem.
Ili kao moja majka. Morala sam se baciti na njega. Ali kako? Pitala sam se je li mi nos slomljen. Pomilovala sam je po glavi. Nisam odgovorila. Ali ja jesam. Nije me razumio. Prokleti nos!
Alex se trznuo. Moje usne su dodirnule njegove. I njegove su uzvratile poljubac. Niz leda su mi prolazili trnci, srce mi je lupalo, cijelo tijelo bilo mi je naelektrizirno Nina ga je samo prezirno pogledala i napustila prostoriju.
Nije plakala, ali bila je na rubu suza. Htjela sam da ostane uz mene. Tako sam to htjela! Glupi Budha! Kad smo se poljubili, definitivno sam shvatila da volim samo Alexa.
Ono s Danielom Kohnom bilo je uzbudljivo, ali to je bila samo avantura. In Ito, M. Convergence Culture. The end of Education, or what do Trans-humanists dream of. Standard Journal of Educational Research and Essay, 3 6 , En Ci- berespacio y resistencias.
Bue- nos Aires: Hekht. La pantalla ubicua. Adolescents from low-income sectors: the challenge of stud- ying in a time of digital environments. Comunicar, 43, Higher media multi-tasking activity is associated with smaller gray-matter density in the anterior cingulate cortex. Facebook es el mensaje. Buenos Aires: Biblos. Being Digital. La juventud en el discurso: representaciones sociales, chat y prensa.
Qualitative evaluation and research methods. Nativos digitales. Buenos Aires: Santillana. Digital natives, digital inmigrants. On the Horizon, 9 5 , La comunidad virtual. Barcelona: Gedisa. New York: Penguin Press. Buenos Aires: FCE. En Urresti, M. Ciberculturas juve- niles pp. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Public Service Media and citizen engagement in times of crisis Abstract: Culture is one of the cornerstones of public service broadcasting that in times of crisis has become a sort of survival guarantee for public media.
In Spain the implementation of public service media strategies has ideally left behind the theory stage and innovative initiatives have been clearly embraced by society. Within this context our research aim is to approach one specific issue faced by two of the Spanish audiovisual corporations: How is culture considered as an asset or strategy to citizen engagement in PSM initiatives of Andalusian RTVA and Cata- lan CCMA Spanish autonomous corporations?
Both corporations have received high academic attention; share a similar historical background including reorgan- isation procedures concerning culture , comparable staff characteristics and high audience shares.
With a methodology based on in-depth interviews, results show how the relationship between culture and the digital as a tool for engagement is not a main concern for both public corporations. Public Service Media and citizen What then was just a prospect is a reality in , when there is no place to a separate conception of audiovisual consumption from the Internet, and the tendency towards a one massive-access medium full with audiovisual contents seems inevitable. In other words, public media need to invigorate the public value by reaffirming their commitment to audiences EBU, , , engaging those audiences as citizens and not consumers, promoting social participation and civic involvement Sara Enli, ; Franquet et al.
Based on this premise, we wonder if the theory stage of PSM has been actually left behind and public media have put it into action with innovative strategies and successful measures within the not-so-new PSM.
That is, whether innovative expe- riences based on a real public service remit commitment have been developed and if these initiatives have been clearly embraced by society. Culture has always been characteristic of public service broadcasting, hypothesis that has changed through- out time: from being unquestionable during public radio monopolies and television monopolies later, to becoming a survival guarantee for public service in more hos- tile contexts.
Andalusian, share a comparable historical background, similar staff characteristics and both corporations broadcast for populations of over 9 million, with potential- ly bigger audiences than many European national public corporations. Above all exposed, this paper represents a step forward in the research about PSM in Spain. Methodology This paper is fundamentally based on results obtained by the authors on an ex-novo research.
Both corporations have suffered reorganisation procedures concerning cul- ture. Both corporations have comparable staff characteristics. Both corporations have a high audience share, somehow related to their audi- ence engagement. Both corporations have received academic attention. Table 1. To carry out this research, we have pursued the following criteria: Reviewing the academic literature on PSM and reference documents of rele- vant industry stakeholders, such as the EBU European Broadcasting Union or the European Commission.
Analysing a set of Spanish legal and corporate documents to highlight the most relevant policies affecting the PSM. Document analysis of the selected PSM initiatives related to culture and en- gagement. Identifying noteworthy PSM cultural initiatives with a particular focus on and other historical relevant periods.
Conducting semi-structured personal in-depth interviews with general man- agers based on a set of questions about the overall digital cultural strategy and noteworthy Internet cultural initiatives related to the audience engagement3. The public corporation expansion began in with RAC on radio and in on televi- sion with a second channel, Canal Over the years CCMA has received recognition for their spreading of Catalan language and culture, with a cultural programming that combines tradition with modernity, from Sputnik in the early 80s to the current Sarda.
In the parliament passed a new law for the corporation, with the objec- tive of a restructuration procedure. As a consequence, the TV and radio corporation was renamed as audiovisual media corporation. Specifically concerning cultural projects, iCat- fm lost its FM frequency and was renamed iCat.
The structure of RTVA has evolved from one television channel and one radio station to three television channels plus an international satellite signal broad- casting in Europe and North Africa , four radio stations three broadcasting on FM and flamencoradio. In the last corporation planning CCMA, b were clearly established four main objectives concerning the digital: on-demand servic- es, multiplatform content, accessibility, and innovation.
Social media was the preferred use of Internet, especially among the youngsters years-old. This report was the result of a study commissioned by the regional government and gave a diagnosis of different areas such as economy, culture, the environment, as well as proposals for each field that underlined the importance of ICTs to achieve the so-called second modernisation in Andalusia. When it comes to regular viewers of television offline , the percentage is 97,4. In the TV and radio websites were launched.
In , after the corpo- ration merge procedure, a unique webpage was launched for TV, radio and digital media that received 1.
Specially YouTube is a priority and recently the presence on popular video on-demand platform Dailymotion. Certain- ly among everything there is an initiative that stands out because of its innovation and concerns specifically culture: iCat.
It was created in , and technological developments aside, the major difference between then and nowadays is a context in which no media can survive without some online strategy. The interviewees agree that there are no contents specifically created for Internet, so the public service is reduced to make those contents available online via on demand or streaming, but the added value appears when being online is the only way for some TV programs such as cultural ones to be actually viewed while being low rated on broadcast television or re- newed for new seasons, Antonio Manfredi, , personal communication.
Precisely the Catalan corporation achieved a big success with a digital-based music radio, iCat. In recent years, Catalan public broadcaster has been undergoing several changes. There seems to be a consensus among the interviewees that the culture plays a central role in RTVA public service, as is dictated by the law itself, e.
These contents perform similarly on Internet, being the most accessed both live streaming and on demand every year on canalsur. The first project, flamencoradio. Based on the same idea7, a thematic music playlist, but with a smaller archive and more limited resources than Flamenco Radio, different seasonal online channels are implemented every year.
Even though the importance of culture remarked by inter- viewees, there are not specific initiatives related to PSM and culture, and the main actions are based on the replication on the Internet of cultural TV programmes.
As examples interviewees quotes only projects of future documenta- ries to be finished in about musician Xavier Cugat and another on the history of the Catalan literature. The latest products of this new stage of the website not yet fully developed , are three new online channels launched in June These thematic channels about food, tourism and flamenco respectively share a very basic design that dis- plays categorised short videos hosted on YouTube, all of which are fragments of television shows that have already aired on Canal Sur TV.
Although there are some notable successful examples of social media activities that complement television shows, in terms of social media, Canal Fiesta Radio is highlighted by the interviewees as the leading branch of RTVA8 , being a regular on the list of trending topics of Twitter, not only in Spain but worldwide. The peaks of activity take place every week when audiences are asked to vote for their favourite artist to top the weekly list of hits as well as when they are asked to vote for new- comers or new talents to be included in the rotation.
The need to stick to public service remit and offer what commercial outlets do not provide have been largely discussed or even theorized by academy over the last decade. However, interviewing staff members with responsibilities that are usually more influenced by political decisions and economic difficulties than by any theoretical framework, broads the study perspective. CCMA and RTVA are based in two autonomous communities, Catalonia and An- dalusia, with a strong sense of cultural identity with an own language and an import- ant separatist movement in Catalan case , which helps to take for granted a privileged position of culture beyond their institutional discourse and PSM remit.
That said, the term culture is prone to be used as a loose concept that may refer to a plethora of contents: from educational program or a documentary or a music thematic radio sta- tion to festivities and folklore or even the way of speaking in a regional accent. With this focus, then it is noticeable how most of PSM initiatives of RTVA are related to culture, festivities and customs, which coincidentally are among the most popular and highest-rated contents on television and radio.
This casualty appears to be obvi- ous at CCMA too when the cultural channels 33 on TV, and iCat as an online radio are claimed to be an instrument to promote digital projects due to its prestige and acceptation. Engagement is seen by all the interviewees as a synonym for attracting audi- ences, therefore many of the initiatives are merely an instrument to promote con- tents. This sort of vicious circle in which it is promoted what is popular, and it is popular because is promoted, might be a consequence of the tightening financial situation combined with the public debate over the actual need of public service media in Spain.
That might explain why CCMA, once praised by its innovative ap- proach9, and with a consolidated digital strategy unlike RTVA shows little interest in prioritising or highlighting culture within its innovation strategy, which general- ly tends to favour news or more popular contents. Struggles with financing are primordial to any decision made by these public corporations, especially at RTVA where with a very limited budget, any new ini- tiative taken is that one that means cutting costs.
Relying on social media, i. Participation is highly valued, even though it is used mainly as a promotional tool or just to know first- hand what audiences like or do not and success is measured in ratings terms. Innovation means taking risks, PSM means providing what private media do not and culture is a crucial part of it.
PhD Thesis. Granada: Universidad de Granada. Accessed 10 August Sevilla: CAA. Estatutprofessional- cessed 10 August Accessed 23 June BOJA 2, 4 January In CEA ed. Sevilla: Centro de Estudios Andaluces. Vision Connecting to a gust Jones ed. Arriazaet al. Nissen coord. From Public Service Broadcasting to pdf.
Public Service Media. PSM in the 21st century: What value and which values? Reig dir. Canal Sur: Measuring media impact. Which Public? New York: Routledge, pp. Memoria San Juan de Trappel et al. In order to verify their answers, we use quantitative research methods on the top 10 stories of the Home page, selected by the Gatekeepers themselves. So far, research in Greece has focused on digital versions of newspapers, and not on TV digital versions.
The domination of the parent companies narrows down the editorial choices of the online Gatekeepers due to their perception of the brand name and the supplemen- tary role of the online versions. Normalization of the online news sites from the parent medium is what drives Gatekeepers, despite the technological advantages, towards an offline attitude when monitoring web metrics.
However, metrics influence journalistic every day practices. They are not used for excluding stories, but for selection, production and placement decisions instead. Au- dience becomes a power of influence due to commercialization of news but there are signs of resistance.
However, one online news media clearly differentiates itself from the infotainment trend and provides much less soft stories to its audience. Introduction Journalism and media in Greece are facing a period of change and restructure. With internet being part of our everyday life and online news becoming the main data source, the dominance of television Papathanassopoulos et al.
At the same time, due to the emer- gency of the digital media and the Greek debt crisis —and its impact, such as unem- ployment, wage cuts, and TV stations and newspapers bankruptcy-, Greek media landscape is transforming Pleios, They know, for example, what each specific user prefers, how long they read a story for, how many stories they consume per visit , in what sequence they click on them, how often and when they visit the site, which channels they use and whether there is interactivity, com- ments, shares or retweets for each of the articles.
Scholars have discovered that gatekeepers monitor web metrics trying to learn what their audience is McGregor, ; McKenzie et al. Metrics affect their editorial choices Anderson, ; Vu, ; Welberg et al. The key- dif- ference between web metrics and other metrics T. As Shoemaker and Vos p. Specifi- cally, for digital news editions of television stations there is no research and this is what adds ours to the literature.
According to our findings, as T. Martin Schultz signed by St. Nikolopoulos and N. Daoudaki, President and Secretary General of the Union respectively. Only online journal- ists from 53 news online outlets participated Panagopoulos, under manuscript in a Census orga- nized by the Union UJADN, Journalistic practice as a gatekeeping process Schudson p. One of the most widely used models of the gatekeeping process is that of Hier- archies and Influences by Shoemaker and Vos , which consists of five nested levels.
In the center of this model is the individual journalist. This level refers to the influences of the individual, such as their background, attitudes, beliefs and experi- ences.
The next layer of influence comes from media routines, newsroom and jour- nalistic practices. The third layer of influence comes from the media organization: group-level dynamics, such as media ownership, the internal structure of the me- dia, its goals and policies. The fourth nested level contains the extra-organization factors, which include information sources, social institutions, such as audience, advertisers, government control, market competition and technology.
The final lev- el is the ideological one, which refers to the government and economic structures. David Manning White was the first who used the metaphor of the gate- keeper.
Posterior studies and research focused on other factors beyond the individual one. Metrics and their role Online journalists know what the audience prefers in real time and do not have to guess its preferences in contrary with traditional media journalists, which do not know what their audience is Gans , McGregor, Web analytics are the key to the modern newsroom processes Tandoc, Newsrooms rely on web analytics Christin, and online news organizations due to technology emergence have a deep knowledge about the audience news con- sumption Napoli, Online gatekeepers know in real time how many users prefer— click- every story and have plenty of data for the consumption in every sin- gle second.
It is not clear what specific metrics are important and for whom. The kind of metrics used can provide a better insight on what the content of the news media is or how adver- tisers dominate the online media market. As Petre puts it, many pageviews reveal soft news content, while time spent on a page underlines quality content. Pageviews is a key metric — still in Greece- for the advertising market.
As it was mentioned before, several studies have found effects of online audi- ence metrics on journalistic decision-making Anderson, ; Lee et al. More clicks mean influence on gatekeepers decisions, more follow up stories and extensive coverage Anderson, ; Vu, , Welbers et al, , and changes in the placement on the home page Lee, et al In the Greek case, web metrics is a useful tool for a small minority of profes- sionals Spyridou, et al.
There are sophisticated tools for web metrics, such as Google analytics free of charge , Chartbeat, Parse. According to our research few online publishers have their own — costume- made- metrics tools, following the practice of media organizations in Europe and US. Soft and Hard News While market pressure tends to soften the news Klinemberg , McManus , journalists still prefer hard news4 Gans, Audience wants and consumes more soft content, a fact which raises questions on the watchdog role of journalists and simultaneously on one of their most professional norms: the one of giving the audience what they need to know.
The possibility of a Gatekeeper to increase soft news as the easy way to gain more clicks is increasing. Gatekeepers, seeking for more clicks, distribute content via social media. News consumption from social media increases every year. Obviously, the audience has responsibility of what news it consumes, especial- ly in the digital era, where algorithms serve the news in social media and search engines as well, taking into consideration audience preferences.
Social media research has found that audience consumes more soft news. As Picone et al. As social media are a medium for social connection, viral go those stories that users want to know and not the news they need to know. Moreover, research sug- gests that provocative emotional content is more likely to be shared and engaged with on social media Guadagno et al.
This includes sto- ries about government, elected officials, political candidates; economy and business; developments, events, happening in other countries, about the state or international organizations; and stories for refugee issue, but not human stories for them. Soft Stories refer to internal local news, crime, sports, health, environment, technology, entertainment e.
Online journalism in Greece The rise of online journalism is prominent in Greece. The first Greek newspa- per online was makthes. Since then, the online media mar- ket has flourished with digital versions of the traditional media, digital born media, personal and organizational blogs, nationwide and local online media. Online media in Greece is an uncharted area and Greek government has recently started applying a law to list them.
Last March, the Ministry of Digital Pol- icy Communication and Information provided licenses to online news media, from a total of , and the evaluation of the other requests is continued M. However, according to news aggregator, Palo.
During qualitative research Touri et al, it was found that news gath- ering in online media is influenced by the traditional and online competition and the continuous attempt to attract and satisfy online audiences.
In a study by Kardami on the top 10 Greek sites, This comes as a new practice responding to speed and immediacy of the medium. The outcome is more stories that are more superficially presented Spyridou et al, and less fact checked. Doudaki and Spyridou found that online journalists employ web tech- niques but dominant professional culture and traditional models of organizations still impose on online media.
Greek online journalists are hiding behind their pro- fessional culture, remain gatekeepers and lack online media reporting skills Sia- pera and Spyridou, In the traditional Greek media T. Greek audience, unlike the rest of the world, prefers digital born news more than online news from mainstream media Kalogeropoulos, The Research Research Questions Given the above literature review, it is the task of our research to study how and to what extent web metrics is a factor of force for Gatekeepers during the selec- tion and production of news content and whether metrics alter Journalistic prac- tices and norms.
Therefore the main Research Questions are the following: RQ1: What are the primary reasons for editors to monitor web metrics? RQ2: Do metrics influence production and editorial choices in everyday prac- tice more than selecting news? What changes employ Gatekeepers when evaluating the stories with metrics? Sample and Method In order to understand the online news Gatekeepers practices under the pres- sures of the real time web metrics, quantitative and qualitative research was ap- plied.
Semi-structured interviews with the Heads of the digital editions from the 5 out of 6 nationwide private T. Directors of online edi- tions of Alpha T. When we conducted the interview with the Editor in Chief of Megatv. Since September 14, , megatv. The interviews were conducted in person during the period from August to February All interviews were conducted face to face, were sound recorded and fully transcribed.
The answers have been anonymized. Makedonia T. We tried to deconstruct their professional idealism and un- derstand their practices and norms. To establish the credibility of what had been said, we decided to extend our research inspecting their top choices. Besides, Lee et al. According to Anderson , this can be understood as an attempt to balance market pressure and professionalism.
On each day, we collected data at 10 a. The selected stories were the 10 most prominently displayed stories on the homepage. But, there were some limitations. In this case we collected 7 top stories, something that do not affect our verification process. But, for historical reasons- Mega was the first private TV station in Greece-, we include their practices to our study. It is worthy to mention that Skai. Both sites are extreme opposite.
The first one is focused on infotainment news and the other one on news. But, are metrics a factor which affects the in and out process when the gate- keeper selects stories? What is the impact of fewer clicks? In other words, are metrics a criteri- on for news selection and hierarchy?
Most results come out from quantitative research and literature focus on the context of the United States, where competition and professionalism is high.
We contribute in the literature in the following ways: Studies for the Greek online media are limited. Most of them refer to digital editions of newspapers and none is focused on the digital editions of the TV stations. Greece, as a part of the Mediterranean countries, has a different media sys- tem Hallin and Mancini, The commer- cialization of media systems in the other two models —liberal with high competition and professionalism, and democratic corporate, strongly professionalized and less market dominated- has led to a de-politicization of their content.
And finally, we propose a different methodology combining quantitative and qualitative research and synthetic analysis. Web metrics become a key tool for online Gatekeepers. Metrics dominate the everyday practice of Journalists, who consciously or un- consciously, use them to understand what attracts their audience. Gatekeepers feel the pressures of the market and of the competition of the plethora of news sites.
The competition about a share in between the online media and between online media and the traditional ones is increasing. However, the head of an informative news site personal interview D mentioned qualitative met- rics first and separated pageviews as metrics tools, something that is interesting for advertisers.
Only one adds that there is some interest on social media metrics as Facebook insights and Twitter analytics, despite the fact they all watch them. Online journalists use web metrics to understand their audience preferences and they, also, look at the metrics used by the market and the advertisers. Metrics are part of their everyday practices and only by this there is some influence to their editorial decisions. Gatekeepers are familiar with the web metrics tools and they use them, something that is a sign of the increasing appliance of web 2.
How frequent do they check metrics about their content acceptance? When do they evaluate a single story after publication? We coded their answers Table 1 and the results show a flux stance. This offline practice can be explained due to limited human resources 3 editors and the saprophyte role of the news site. It mostly publishes only content from the agencies, as well as all the videos from the TV parent medium. Two of the heads watch metrics every Hour and evaluate the consumption of the stories every 30 and 60 minutes, respectively.
They have a team of editors and only a few of the TV reporters voluntarily or granted with a small bonus contribute with their stories.
The head of the informative news site monitors web analytics every two hours but evaluates each story every 15 minutes. On the contrary, infotainment news site has a team of editors and the head monitors the metrics and evaluates stories every 2 hours. Online gatekeepers on T. Their outlets are not editorially or organizationally autonomous. Gatekeepers understand the advantages of real time metrics and use them as an information tool, while they gradually adapt their everyday practices to satisfy the demands of the medium.
However, the organiza- tional structure and practice normalize their practices and norms to the dominant medium, which in our case is the TV. It looks like they use the online metrics with an offline practice. Metrics influence the editorial selection or production and what the Gatekeepers practices are The results for the RQ2 reveal some influence in journalistic practices.
The first criterion of selecting news for all the participants is newsworthiness. It is like a reflection of the everyday practice. Professionalism culture still occupies the stance of the heads.
All participants state that they do not exclude news even if they know or have dealt with bad metrics at the past. In this context Gatekeepers try to balance the needs for continuous publishing and immediacy, and newsworthiness. Following professionalism norms and cul- ture they still select the stories according to their professional culture, background and personal identity. There is no metrics influence during the selection process. Analyzing metrics for a long time, gatekeepers have the experience and the intuition to guess if a story has potentials for many clicks.
For example, there are trend stories for the Greek audience based on historical and cultural reasons such as disputes with Turkey and deviant events in Turkey, etc. Panagopoulos, under manuscript. However, metrics affect less informative news sites.
News sites have no limits of space or time, thus gatekeepers are able to publish as much content and any kind of content they are keen to. As a Head of an infor- mative news site explains, the decision for news selection or de-selection is deter- mined by the guidelines of the brand name.
It is obvious that metrics influence selection and production of stories, since they are used to choose and publish more stories of a specific category, in order to attract a particular audience segment.
Metrics are used by the gatekeepers not to exclude stories but, in some cases, to include stories in the everyday flow. However, the majority of the heads admits that a story is successful if it is among the most preferred by the audience. Heads agree that they use metrics in their practices in order to increase con- sumption. The practices followed by the gatekeepers are sum- marized at Table 2. Table 2. Journalists move the story towards the top or the end of the home page if the metrics are high or low, respectively.
Story could be published on the flow and diffuse to social media. Another, common practice is the follow up of the story. However, journalists admit that, due to the lack of reporters and ed- itors, the usual practice is to rewrite stories without important new information.
This practice is employed additionally to improve SEO results and, therefore, add more traffic to the site from the search engines. The practices of changing headlines and enhancing stories with new elements are not familiar, but, rarely, some of the heads use them.
Metrics are guides for the road each gatekeeper wants to follow. Most of the gatekeepers use them mostly for news production and to employ new, attractive for the audience, techniques.
There are times when the analysis of metrics drives gatekeepers to select stories for specific segments of the audience, but not neces- sarily violating their professional norms. Infotainment and popular news sites are influenced by metrics more than informative news sites. However, most of the jour- nalists try to balance between their role to inform society and the preferences of the audience.
In this case study one informative site ignores the preferences of the audience and remains loyal to the guidelines of the brand and the watchdog role. Soft news vs. Champion of the debate between hard and soft news is the latter. But, to what extent news sites publish hard and soft stories?
Analyzing the results from the quantitative research we found that two out of the four news sites publish more hard stories than soft ones and, also, when we discard overlapping stories. The results are summed up in Table 3.
Table 3. At the other extreme is star. Only one out of four from the top 10 stories is hard news. Thus, the stories published, confirm what Gatekeepers say about their choices. First, is hard news oriented, while met- rics are not a criterion for news selection and the latter is soft news oriented with metrics affecting the selection.
Despite the fact that Alphatv. There is a copy paste culture from the agencies as it is mentioned by its head. Notably, from the total of hard news of Alphatv. At the same time, the proportion at the informative site, Skai. It is important to notice that most of Skai.
There are no stories from entertainment, celebrities, etc. Additional analysis Table 4. Table 4. On the contrary, on Star. Usually, hard news has follow up stories and journalists refresh those kinds of stories with extra information and reactions and produce new stories-with a new URL.
Gatekeepers employ web metrics but they monitor them in the offline world of their parent medium. Some of the participants admit that they use metrics as a selection criterion that de- fines what a successful story is, but the degree to which metrics are used to govern news production, depends on the brand guidelines.
Metrics are part of the process for digital production and in some cases selec- tion criterion, but not a tool to exclude news. Spyridou et al found that a small number of online print editions in Greece uses internet metrics. However, not all of them follow the same practices and there are nuances at their decisions when interpreting metrics. They are not ready to abandon their professional identity yet.
They follow the guidelines of the parent medium and not the metrics path. Parent medium conveys its domi- nance to the online editions, since they are still being used as complementary to TV stations and do not have a full autonomy.
They publish soft news but a a small number in prominent places and b that kind of soft news which not plague the image of the brand name. As most participants admit, Greek audience mainly prefers soft news and explanatory news.
Participants insist that even if a story will not sell they are still going to publish it, if it is newsworthy or users need to know it. As competition and market pressures increase, editors publish as many stories as possible, trying to reduce the potential loss of a clickable or newsworthy story.
Human resources might be a dependent variable for this practice. Results show that journalists on infotainment sites pub- lish significant number of soft stories in the top stories section and informative news sites operate extremely different. Finally, online editions of the private television stations seem to constantly re- fresh their top stories and the exception is spotted on infotainment sites where soft stories remain more time on the home page taking onto account metrics.
Further research is on the way concerning the gatekeepers on digital editions of newspa- pers and the digital born outlets. We hypothesize that digital born media are more metrics addicted and influ- enced than online editions of traditional media and that there are different practic- es among brands of a media group. Between creative and quantified audiences: Web met- rics and changing patterns of newswork in local US newsrooms.
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How gatekeeping still matters: Understanding ing the process of gatekeeping. Gatekeeping in Transition. New York, Rout- power on journalism culture in Greece. The online audience as gatekeeper: The influence of reader ledge. The Gatekeeper: A case study in the selection of news. Internet in Greece. National Centre of Social Journalism Quarterly. Main researcher: N. Considering Art as a means of connecting people, we study the way in which performances evolve and adjust to contemporary societal demands.
Al- though globalisation unifies societies in economic, educational and cultural terms, we can see that human alienation becomes the reality of our times. On the other hand, modern technologies have been introduced to create ground-breaking ways of empowering communication between the Art and its artists, as well as between the Art and its audience. In this article, we observe the progress of modern societies in relation to the Arts and the way in which it has been influenced by following the worldwide trends, technological advancements and social needs.
Cyborg performance art, performers with artificially augmented bodies, avatars and Second Life relationships, comput- er-generated or virtual bodies and cybernetic societies, are our tools for analysing the creative, artistic advancement of our global and sometimes lonely societies. Key words: Cyborg performance, virtual body, virtual societies, avatars, second life experience 1 emmanouela rfsat. Introduction When we talk about globalization we usually mean the integration of regional or national economies into international ones.
Furthermore, we need to admit that the evolution, immediacy and speed of the progress of communi- cation are few of the most vital achievements of our modern global societies. To build a global economy, the countries of the world have cooperated in the creation of the suitable conditions for political, societal and cultural exchanges, at the same advancing the communication technologies.
Nowadays, we can be proud that the knowledge and the speed of information exchange become more available and easier accessible to people than any other time in the past, i. The network technologies connect people, countries and continents. As the technology advances, the new means of expression used by the artists to communicate their thoughts to our contemporary world change as well.
Someone could say that this advancement influences the ways that art and art- ists converse their ideas to the public. The concept of the Art in general changes as well. We are more and more moving away from the Aristotelian and Platonian theo- ry of art, which refers to the mimesis and the representation of reality Aristotle, BC; Plato, BC.
The concept of the Art became related to mastering the skills, and the way of communicating these skills is clearly connected to the technologies used by artists.
What we may notice is that the integration of the Art and the Technology is an unavoidable result produced by contemporary societies to satisfy their cur- rent needs, the needs which are always cultivated according to their cultural level. Another example could be the issue of communication with respect to cur- rent sense of aesthetics. We mean by this the ability of modern technologies to alter our experience of existence in space-time and to create new perceptions of contact that define alternative ways of human coexistence, i.
The need of being together At the beginning of the first half of the 20th century, only few years before the introduction of the network technologies, artists tried to connect people who were spread around the world. The artist, as the director of the project, could switch from one location to another by changing the channels, whereas people from distinct locations could communicate with one another.
The main message of this project was that somebody could connect with any- body else at a different location without boundaries. At the beginning, they were separated by a split-screen and at the end they appeared to be together in a third space, not here and not there, but somewhere in-between Chandler and Neumark, The artists, were able to create a vir- tual performance space by using the Chroma-key techniques.
It was like a common land, for people performers who live or exist in separate locations. The need of being together is perhaps the most inspiring starting point for many artists. It is a need, which probably other people feel too, but they have not found the way to express it yet. The necessity of being together and shar- ing something common or the need to create a home to share, can be found in many arts works from, e.
We should remember that at that time the satellite was the most common means of transmitting live TV broadcasts across oceans. Hence, artists had to focus on dealing with long transmission delays over long distance networks. They per- formed several telecollaborative dance, performance, and music scores to determine what genres could be supported, trying to assess what new genres would emerge as intrinsic to this new way of being-in-the-world.
This work was based on similar technologies and was facilitated by a satellite connection, which linked the New York with Los Angeles. They could see, listen and talk to each other like they had met by chance on the same sidewalk. The project lasted for three days and during that time brought together friends, relatives and families that had not met for many years. It was October when the Station House Opera, in collaboration with De Daders experimented with the in- ternet technology combined with the digital picture for first time.
In May , the same project staged with nine actors who per- formed together while they were apart. Some of them were placed in Birmingham, some others in Colchester and the rest performed in London. Nine people in three different cities performed together in one single production. The show took place in three distinct locations linked by video streaming to create a simultaneous combined performance, telling a story that used cinematic language to create a fourth imaginary space.
At each place, the audience witnessed a live per- formance where video projections coming from the other two venues were com- bined on a large screen. Even though some sound delays occurred during the per- formance, probably because of the connection, the experiment of this artwork was a very successful one.
It was a thrilling moment for the audience when at the end of the performance the three audiences from three different cities were cheering and clapping; while at the same time could see each other through the video streaming projected on the screens. It was one of these wonderful moments which can make the spectator feel like he is everywhere, here or there, it does not really matter, be- cause the entire universe is one place.